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Two Indian Boys. 
Visit to a Strange Land. 
Loss of a Silver Cup. 

The First Governor. 
The Tardy Governor. 
John Lawson and the Alli- 

The Carolina Pirate. 

Daniel Boone. 

Tryon and the Regulators. 

The Noble Four Hundred. 
Cornwallis in a Hornets' 

The Heroes of Mclntyre's. 

Minute Men of the Hills. 
Cornwallis on the Run. 
A Strange Night Attack. 


Lane's Search for Gold. 
The Lord of Roanoke. 
Story of Virginia Dare. 

A Sad Grandfather. 
The First Settlement. 
Cattle Ranch on Cape F<~ar. 


The Albemarle Boss. Capture of Fort Barnwell. 

An Adventure on the Neuse. Capture of Fort Nahucke. 
An Indian Massacre. King Blunt 


British Stamps at Wilming- Second Sound of Liberty's 

ton. Bell. 

The Edenton Tea Party. The Fair Tory. 

First Sound of Liberty's Bell. Defeat of the Tories. 


Rough Riders of the Smokies. Adventures of an American 
General Greene Without a Spy. 

Penny. Death of the Bugler Boy. 

The Fall of a Patriot. How Colonel Pyle Saved 



A Brave Woman's Wit. 
The Tory Bandit. 
Hunter's Stone Steps. 

The State of Franklin. 

Story of Bath. 

An Old-Time School. 






Superintendent Waynesville, N. C., City Schools 


B. F. Johnson Publishing Company 

Copyright, 1901, by W. C. Allen. 

All rights reserved. 

131. H.P. 



In presenting this little volume to the children of North Carolina 
2J there are two objects in view: 


2 1. To stimulate study in North Carolina history. 

2. To give supplementary reading matter, containing interesting 
" w For the promotion of these objects the author has selected events 


> and incidents that have interest in themselves, and has told them in 

words simple enough for a child to understand. 

The stories close with the eighteenth century, and embrace a por- 
c| tion of the two preceding centuries. If a desire to know more of 

X. the history of North Carolina be aroused, the chief object of the 


writer will have been attained. 

J*| Thanks are due Dr. Richard Dillard, of Edenton, for facts relative 
Q to the Edenton Tea Party, and to Major Graham Daves for valuable 
' aid. 

Suggestions to Teachers 

To get the best results from the use of this book, the following 
suggestions may be helpful: 

1. Let pupils study each story until it is thoroughly learned. To 
accomplish this, have them write a topical outline. Pupils will 
readily do this if they are assisted a few times by the teacher. 

2. Let pupils read the story aloud in class by paragraphs. Do not 
stop them for mispronunciations until the paragraph is finished. 

3. Let a number of pupils write their topical outlines at the 
board. Then let all read them and offer corrections and criticisms. 

4. Call upon pupils to tell the story in their own words. 

5. Let pupils write the story in their own words in a composi- 
tion book for that purpose. 

If this method, or one similar to it, be followed, much benefit will 
be derived. 





Two Indian Boys , 9 

Visit to a Strange Land 13 

The Loss of a Silver Cup 17 

Lane's Search for Gold 20 

The Lord of Roanoke 25 

Story- of Virginia Dare 29 

A Sad Grandfather 34 

The First Settlement 38 

A Cattle Ranch on the Cape 

Fear 42 


The First Governor 7 

The Tardy Governor 11 

John Lawson and the Alli- 
gators 15 

The Albemarle Boss 19 

An Adventure on the Neuse. ... 24 

An Indian Massacre 32 

Capture of Fort Barnwell 36 

Capture of Fort Nahucke 40 

King Blunt 44 


The Carolina Pirate 7 

Daniel Boone 15 

Tryon and the Regulators .... 23 

British Stamps at Wilmington . 26 

The Edentou Tea Party 31 


First Sound of Liberty's Bell . . 35 

Second Sound of Liberty's Bell 39 

The Fair Tory 41 

Defeat of the Tories 45 


The Noble Four Hundred 9 

Cornwallis in a Hornets' Nest. 13 

The Heroes of Mclntyre's 17 

Rough Riders of the Smokies . . 22 
General Greene Without a 

Penny 26 

The Fall of a Patriot 31 

Adventures of An American 

Spy 35 

Death of the Bugler Boy 39 

How Colonel Pyle Saved 

Tarleton 44 


Minute Men of the Hills 9 

Cornwallis on the Run 13 

A Strange Night Attack 17 

A Brave Woman's Wit. ....... 21 

The Tory Bandit 25 

Hunter's Stone Steps 29 

The State of Franklin 33 

Story of Bath 37 

An Old-Time School . . 41 

"He said good-bye to Mr. and Mrs. Dare, took little Virginia up in 
his arms and kissed her several times." Page 30, Book 1. 

North Carolina History Stories 


Three hundred years ago there were no white people 
in North Carolina. Only Indians lived here. They 
owned all the land, and lived in their wigwams near 
their hunting grounds. They were very happy in their 
homes in the forest. They knew nothing of the great 
cities and fine people on the other side of the big ocean. 

Little Indian boys and girls played games in the 
fields and woods, and plucked the wild flowers with joy 
and gladness, just as boys and girls do now. They 
heard the birds sing and saw the squirrels and the deer 
How happy they were as they chased the butterflies or 
watched the birds build their nests in the trees! 

The names of two of these Indian boys, who lived on 

an island called Croatan, are well known. They were 

Manteq and Manchese. They were about the same age, 

and were brighter and more active than the other boys 

cro tan' man'te o man che'ze 



of the island. But they were as different from each 
other as possible. Manteo was kind and obedient; but 
Manchese was cruel and stubborn. 

This difference, however, did not keep them from 
being great friends. They were often together, and 
fished and hunted side by side. They knew nothing of 
other lands, but sometimes wondered where the big sea 
ended and what was on the other side of it. So these 
boys grew up to be men in this wild country, often 
wishjng that they could see beyond the great sea. 
They did not know how soon or in what way they would 
get their wish. 

One day, when Manteo and Manchese were about 
eighteen years old, a wonderful thing happened. They 
were going in a canoe to one of their fishing places to 
see if their fish-traps had caught anything. Just as 
they turned a bend in the shore line they came in full 
view of a large ship anchored and standing perfectly 
still in the smooth water. At first they were puzzled 
and could not tell what the strange thing was. Man- 
chese and another boy who was with them proposed to 
turn back; but Manteo insisted upon going nearer. 

"How can we miss this chance," said he, "which the 
Great Spirit has given us to find out what this strange 
thing is?" 


When they came nearer, men were seen moving 
about on the great boat. They saw another boat just 
beyond the first one. Then the boys guided, the canoe 
towards the land and Manteo jumped ashore, saying 
that he was going nearer. He was a brave boy and 
wished to see what the strange sight meant. So he 
walked along the beach to a place nearest the ships, 
and beckoned to those on board. 

These ships were from England, a great country 
across the sea. They had been sent out by Sir Walter 
Raleigh, a rich nobleman who lived in London, to see 
what kind of a country this new world was that Colum- 
bus and Cabot had found, and what kind of people lived 
here. The captains of the ships were Philip Amidas 
and Arthur Barlowe. 

Seeing some one on the shore beckoning, Captain 
Amidas and three other men let down one of the small 
boats into the water and went over to where the Indian 
was. Manteo made a long speech of welcome to them 
in his own language, but the white men did not under- 
stand him. He stepped into their boat and pointed to 
the big ships, thus showing that he wanted to go to 
them. The white men carried him to the ships and 
took him on board. 

raw'li am'i das 


He was much astonished at everything, and walked 
about on deck, looking at the curious things with the 
eagerness of a child. Every piece of dress that the 
sailors wore was new to him. He walked up to a sailor, 
took his hat and put it on his own head. After wear- 
ing it for a few moments, he returned the hat to the 
owner, but showed by signs that he wanted one. 

Captain Amidas presented him with a hat, which he 
was overjoyed to receive, and gave him several pieces 
of jewelry that pleased him very much. When he had 
thanked Captain Amidas for what had been given him 
he went back to his own boat and companions. 

Soon he and the other two boys rowed out into the 
sound and commenced fishing. In a little while they 
had caught as many fish as their boat could hold. Com- 
ing back to the shore, Manteo divided the fish into two 
piles, and made signs to show that one pile was for one 
ship and the other for the other ship. Having thus ex- 
pressed his thanks in a practical manner, he and his 
companions went home. 

Thus it was that these Indian boys began to get a 
glimpse of the world as it was across the big sea. 



As Manteo and Manchese went home that day they 
had many things about which to talk. They had seen 
strange things and had heard strange sounds. They 
talked about the large ships of the white men, their 
guns and their swords. Nothing had ever stirred them 
like the events of that day. 

After talking of all the things that they had seen 
and heard, they became silent as if some deeper 
thought had entered their minds. 

"I wonder where they came from and for what," said 

"From over the sea toward the rising sun," replied 
Manchese. "The Great Spirit has sent them to tell us 
about the world across the big water." 

"The world must be a fine place if it has such people 
as those in it. I should like to see their wigwams," 
said Manteo. 

" So should I," answered Manchese. " They must be 
fine ones." 

Thus these Indian boys talked in their own lan- 
guage until they reached home. They told their home 
folks what wonderful things they had seen. All the 


old men and young men and women listened eagerly. 
Some of the braves were uneasy when they had heard 
the boys' story. They said that .the palefaces had come 
for no good. By far the larger number, however, were 
glad that the strangers had come, and were willing to 
give them a cordial welcome. 

Next day a large number of the Indians went to see 
the ships and to give a welcome to the Englishmen. 
Manteo and Manchese went aboard the ships and were 
greeted kindly by the sailors. For several days there- 
after they went regularly and became intimate with 
the white men. Frequently they went with exploring 
parties that were sent out, and were very useful in 
showing the way to certain places and in keeping the 
other Indians friendly. 

One day Manteo asked Manchese if he did not wish 
to go across the big sea with the white men. 

"These men are our friends," said Manteo, "and will 
show us the wonderful things they have at home." 

"There is danger in it," answered Manchese; "for they 
may never come back here, and we could never find our 
way across the great sea in our canoe." 

"The Great Spirit will take care of us," said Manteo. 
"He will never allow any harm to come to us if we trust 


him. Let us go and see what great things these 
strangers can show us." 

Manchese consented. They agreed to ask the white 
men next day to let them go back with them across the 
sea. Captain Amidas and the others were glad for 
them to go. So they got ready, and when the ships 
were about to sail Manteo and Manchese were there. 
They bade farewell to father and mother, sisters and 
brothers, relatives and friends, and went on board. 

The ships sailed away and were soon out of sight of 
land. It was a pleasant voyage, and in a few weeks 
land was sighted. They anchored on the west coast of 
England. The Indian boys had enjoyed the trip across 
the ocean very much; and now, as the ship approached 
land, they were astonished at the beautiful sight that 
greeted them. 

There before them was a great city. They had ex- 
pected to see wigwams like their own, except larger; 
but instead there were great stone castles reaching 
up into the clouds. They had never imagined anything 
like it. Their eyes were dazzled. Indeed, they were 
really alarmed at the greatness of everything. 

They went ashore and their wonder increased. They 
stared at the many strange things on every street. This 
was indeed a strange land to them. They could not 
conceal their wonder. 


Soon they were taken to London, and still their won- 
der grew. They went to the palace of Queen Elizabeth 
and into the presence of the queen herself. She re- 
ceived them kindly and spoke some words to them, but 
they could not understand her. They saw the splendors 
of the palace, the fine gentlemen, and the beautiful 
ladies with their gay dresses. It was another great 
day in the lives of these boys. 

Manteo was delighted, but Manchese was quiet. 
Manteo was full of joy, but Manchese appeared to be 
very much displeased. 

Sir Walter Raleigh, who owned the ships that 
brought them over, soon began to make ready to send 
some people over to the new world to settle. While this 
was being done, the two Indian boys lived in London. 
They saw many things that caused them always to 
remember their stay in that city. 

At last everything was ready for the ships to return 
to North Carolina. Manteo and Manchese came on 
board with the others who were going to settle in the 
new country. They were glad that they were on their 
way back home. 

In a few weeks they came in sight of the shores of 
their native land. The visit of these boys to a strange 
land was over. 



It was with pleasure that Manteo and Manchese once 
more saw the land of their birth. They had been ab- 
sent about eight months, and had seen much of the 
world. They were overjoyed to see the smooth waters 
of the sound and, in the distance, the forests where 
they had so often roamed. 

As soon as the ships reached Wocoken they cast an- 
chor. There were more than a hundred men on board. 
Ralph Lane was governor of the new colony and Sir 
Richard Grenville was commander of the ships. Man- 
teo was sent to Roanoke Island to inform the king of 
their arrival. While waiting for him to return, Gren- 
ville and Lane, with about a dozen others, crossed 
over the sound and explored a large part of the neigh- 
boring country. They were received in a kindly man- 
ner by the Indians. Several villages were visited. 
Everywhere the best of feeling existed between the 
Indians and the English. 

One night they stopped at Aquascogoc, a small vil- 
lage with about twenty wigwams. The Indians were 
glad to see the strangers, and welcomed them to their 
homes. The night passed very pleasantly. 

wo ko'ken a kwas'ko goc 


Next morning Grenville and his party left to go to 
another place. They bade farewell to the savages, who 
crowded around to see them off. The white men 
thanked the Indians by signs for what they had done, 
and gave them presents. 

On the next day, after having traveled a long dis- 
tance from the village, one of the men found that a 
silver cup had been stolen from him. He told Sir 
Kichard Grenville, and said that it had been stolen by 
an Indian in the village where they had spent the night. 
At once they returned to the village. Grenville sent 
word to the chief that the cup had been stolen and the 
thief must be caught. The chief sent word back that 
he would try to find the thief and the cup. Soon he 
came out to the white men with an Indian boy, who 
confessed that he had taken the cup, and promised to 
go back to the village and bring it. 

The white men waited for some time, but the boy did 
not return. Nobody knows why he did not. Some one 
may have stolen the cup from him, or he may not have 
wanted to give up what pleased him so much. The 
white men became restless. Soon they lost their tem- 
pers and began to shout and curse. The Indians be- 
came frightened and began to run. Grenville and his 
men fired their guns at the fleeing savages. Then they 


charged into the village and began to destroy every- 
thing they could find. As they went through the vil- 
lage they searched for the cup, but could not find it, 
and this made them still more angry. 

They set fire to the village and burned every wig- 
wam to the ground. They searched the country around 
to find the boy who had stolen the cup, but he was no- 
where to be seen. They then set fire to the fields of 
grain and destroyed everything in sight. 

This was the beginning of bad feeling between the 
Indians and the white men. It was wrong for the 
Indian to steal the cup, but there was no reason for the 
white men to act as they did. The Indians never for- 
gave them for it. Manchese, who had never had any 
fondness for the English, left them and began to plot 
their destruction. 

After having destroyed the Indian village and the 
fields of grain, Grenville and his party returned to their 

Soon Manteo came back bringing an invitation from 
Wirgina, the king of Roanoke Island, to the white men, 
bidding them come there to make their settlement. 
This invitation was accepted, and the whole company 
set sail for that place. 



Governor Lane and the colonists received a cordial 
welcome when they reached Roanoke Island. King 
Wirgina sent kindly messages and gave them lands 
upon which to build their homes. Other Indians helped 
them unload the ships and erect their houses. 

Soon they had a nice little village of huts. Then 
they took from the ships all the household furniture 
they had brought over. Lane and his men worked hard, 
and soon had comfortable homes. Sir Richard Gren- 
ville then sailed away to England, leaving the colony to 
live or die in a strange land. 

At first the Indians came to see them every day, and 
were very friendly. Later they did not come so often. 
They began to show some unfriendliness. They had 
heard how Governor Lane and some of his men had 
burned the Indian town because they could not find 
the silver cup. But Manteo was a strong friend, and 
remained so. 

Governor Lane spent much time in hunting for gold. 
He was not satisfied with planting seeds and building 
houses. He thought there must be gold mines in this 
wonderful land. So he traveled all over the island. 


went to the mainland, and searched the" country for 
miles inland. Then he sailed up some of the rivers, but 
nowhere could he find gold. 

While Governor Lane was doing this, the Indians 
were becoming more and more unfriendly. Manchese 
was busy sowing among them the seeds of hatred and 
jealousy. He got the ear of the king and began to plot 
the destruction of the white men. 

"Just see what the palefaces are doing," said he. 
"They are taking our lands from us and we will have 
to go elsewhere for our hunting grounds. Others will 
come from across the big water and drive us away. 
There are thousands in their big wigwams toward the 
rising sun, ready to come and destroy us." 

"That is true," replied the king, "for they destroyed 
the homes and crops of our neighbors at Aquascogoc. 
As for me I am ready to slay them now. It is time for 
us to strike before other palefaces come." 

They began to lay plans for the destruction of the 
colony. They knew that Governor Lane was searching 
for gold; so they thought that the white men could be 
destroyed while hunting for the precious metal. Along 
the banks of the Roanoke river, which the Indians 
called Morotoc, lived a very fierce tribe of savages. 

mo'ro toe 


The plan of Wirgina and Manchese was to tell Lane 
that there were gold mines up that river, and then send 
word to these savages that the white men were coming 
to make war on them. Thus they were sure that Lane 
and his followers would perish. 

One Indian, according to their plan, went to the 
governor and offered to tell him where he could find a 
gold mine. Lane was caught with the first bait, and 
eagerly asked where it was. 

"Far up the great river Morotoc," said the Indian, 
"is a land rich in gold 'and precious stones. The great 
river rises in a lake which is so near the ocean that the 
waves sometimes beat over into it. The people of that 
land are rich and have gold chains and bracelets." 

Governor Lane was eager to find out the way and the 
distance. The Indian answered his questions, and went 
back to Wirgina, who sent him to do the other part of 
his work, which was to tell the Indians on the river 
that Lane was coming. 

Soon the governor and his men set out in search of 
this gold mine on the Roanoke river. They carried pro- 
visions to last them a long time. Manteo was in the 
company. For some days they went up the river. 
They looked all along the banks to see if they could find 
any signs of gold, or see any Indians wearing gold or- 


naments; but they saw none, and continued their jour- 
ney. When they had gone nearly a hundred miles they 
saw some Indians. One evening, just before sunset, 
they heard a peculiar whistling on the bank of the river. 
Manteo said that it was the signal, of Indians preparing 
to make an attack. Soon the whistling ceased and the 
Indians began to sing a song. 

Manteo said that was a signal of attack, and in a few 
minutes a shower of arrows fell upon the boat. No 
one was hurt. Lane and his men went ashore as soon 
as possible. They charged up the hill and put the 
Indians to flight. Then they encamped for the night, 
thinking that they would follow the Indians next day. 

The next morning Lane decided to go back to the 
colony. Provisions had given out and there was no 
chance to get any in that hostile country. So they 
turned their boats down the river and traveled as fast 
as they could. They became very hungry on the way, 
as they had not a morsel of food. One day they ate a 
boiled dog and sassafras leaves. After much suffering 
they reached Roanoke Island. Wirgina and Manchese 
were greatly disappointed by their return. This was 
Lane's last search for gold. Soon afterward, in a fight 
with the Indians, four of his men were killed. Wirgina 


and many of his men were slain also. It is not known 
whether Manchese was killed or not. 

In a short while Lane went back to England with all 
his men. Thus the first settlement was a failure. 



Manteo went with Governor Lane to England. This 
was his second trip across the ocean. He was as much 
delighted this time as on his first trip. He had become 
a strong friend of the white men. He had learned to 
talk English a little, and could make himself under- 
stood. The white men were kind to him, and he loved 
them very much. 

While in England this time Manteo became quite 
well known to Sir Walter Raleigh. He talked to that 
great man with the simplicity of a child, and told him 
about his people and about the wild animals and the 
flowers in his far-off home. In this way Sir Walter be- 
came more and more interested in Manteo. A great 
friendship was formed between the two, and they were 
often together. 

Manteo became very much interested in the titles of 
honor in England. He asked many questions about 
them. One day he asked Sir Walter Raleigh how one 
mfght become a lord. Sir Walter looked at the Indian 
for a moment with much concern, and said: 

"My boy, do you wish to become great like these great 
men whom vou see here?" 


"Yes," said Manteo, "for I want to tell my people to- 
ward the setting sun how to be great, and how to build 
fine wigwams like yours. The Great Spirit has sent me 
over here to learn from you how to be great and good." 

Sir Walter was much pleased with the earnestness 
of the young Indian, and promised to show him how to 
be great and good. 

"You must be obedient and watchful," said he, "and 
then perhaps you will learn enough to become a lord." 

From that time Manteo was more diligent than be- 
fore. He was bright, and learned very rapidly. He 
talked much with learned men, and soon became known 
all over London for his brightness and his eagerness to 

When the time came for the newly-appointed gover- 
nor, John White, to set out from England with his 
colony, Manteo had gained a great deal of English 
learning and culture. He was able to talk intelligently 
about many things that he had never heard of before 
coming to England. 

A few days before the ships were to sail for America, 
Sir Walter called Manteo to him and asked if he wanted 
to return to his own country. 

"Yes/' said the Indian, "for my people will be ex- 
pecting me when they see the big ships." 


Raleigh then told him that he should be called the 
Lord of Roanoke. Manteo was very glad of this, and 
thanked Sir Walter many times. He was delighted at 
his title, and called himself Lord Manteo to hear how 
it sounded. 

After a while the ships sailed for America, and the 
young Lord of Roanoke bade a last farewell to Eng- 
land. He never went back to the beautiful country 
where he had seen and learned so much. But he al- 
ways remembered the many things that had interested 
him there. 

Soon the ships landed at Roanoke Island and the 
settlement began. The houses already there were re- 
paired and new ones built. All worked faithfully, and 
soon had comfortable homes. 

Governor White had been told by Sir Walter Raleigh 
to appoint Manteo Lord of Roanoke as soon as the set- 
tlement was made. Manteo first joined the church 
and was baptized. Then Governor White struck him 
on the shoulder with the flat of his sword and told him 
that he was now a knight of the queen and Lord of Roa- 
noke. The Lord of Roanoke wore his honors well. He 
was very proud of his rank, and became a really fine 
gentleman. He was very useful to the settlers in keep- 
ing the Indians friendly and acting as> interpreter. 


When the colonists moved from Roanoke to Croatan, 
Manteo vent with them. He was also there when the 
Indians from Virginia made an attack upon the colony. 
He fought bravely in defense of the settlers, and when 
all seemed to be lost, he escaped with a few of them to 
Hatteras, where his people lived. 

This is all that is known of the Lord of Roanoke. No 
one knows what he did after this, or how long he lived 
after reaching Hatteras. He fades from history at this 
point. We can believe, however, that he was always 
true to the English settlers that escaped the slaughter. 

hat'te ras 

c3 "^ 
I 3 



'E i: 



*-> rt 

CQ _ 

2 o 

A !- 

^ CS 




In the spring of 1587 colonists came from England 
to settle on Roanoke Island. On this trip there were 
women and children with the company. The year 
before none but men had come, and they soon became 
homesick and returned to England. 

John White was governor, and he had over a hun- 
dred people with him. Manteo was with him, too. He 
had gone to England with Governor Lane the year 
before, and now came back with Governor White. 

They repaired the houses that Lane had built, and 
put up others. Then the women and children went 
ashore. Soon the old houses began to look homelike, 
and the children began to play and enjoy themselves 
in their wild homes. But they were afraid of the 
Indians, and every time one would come to the village, 
the children would run and hide. 

One day George Howe was out in the sound all alone 
catching crabs. Some Indians that were angry with 
the white people crept up and killed him. This murder 
scared all the children in the colony. They never went 
very far from their homes after that. They were afraid 
the Indians would kill them. 


On the eighteenth of August, soon after all the 
houses were repaired and the people began to feel at 
home, a little baby girl was born at the house of 
Ananias Dare. Her mother, Mrs. Eleanor Dare, was 
the daughter of Governor White. 

Governor White was very proud of his little grand- 
daughter. He named her Virginia, as all the new 
country was then called Virginia after the Virgin 
Queen Elizabeth. He did not know that Virginia 
Dare, the first white child born in this new country, 
would become one of the most famous names in North 
Carolina history. 

When Virginia was nine days old, Governor White 
had to go back to England to get provisions for the 
colony. He did not wish to go, and tried to get some- 
body to go in his place. He wished to stay at Roanoke 
Island with his little granddaughter. But as no one 
else was willing, Governor White felt that it was his 
duty to go. 

He said good-bye to Mr. and Mrs. Dare, took little 
Virginia up in his arms, and kissed her several times. 
Then he went down to the ship that was waiting for 
him, and was soon out of sight. 

That was the last time Governor White ever saw his 
granddaughter or any of the colonists. He went to 


England and found his people at war with Spain. On 
account of the war, he could not get supplies. He had 
to wait three years. When the war closed, he got the 
supplies and came back to the settlement; ! but he 
could not find the colony, nor any member of it. 

No one knows exactly what became of little Virginia 
and her mother and father, or of any of the colonists 
that Governor White left. Many years after that time 
the Indians said that Virginia grew up and became a 
queen among the Indians. According to this Indian 
story, a year or more passed by and, as the colonists 
heard nothing from Governor White, they began to 
feel uneasy. Provisions were scarce, and they were in 
danger of starving. They did not know what to do. 
They waited another year, living on crabs and fish, 
but the governor did not return. 

"What can be the matter?" asked Mrs. Dare; but 
no one could answer. Every one thought that the 
governor had been lost at sea. Still they hoped on, 
but despair began to settle upon all. 

At last they decided to cross over to the mainland, 
which was called Croatan, and build other homes. The 
Indians there were friendly, and had invited them to 
come. So they cut the word Croatan on a tree and left. 


There they lived for several years with the friendly 
Indians. Little Virginia grew up to be a very beau- 
tiful girl. The Indians loved her, and called her 
the daughter of the Great Spirit. Thus it was that 
several years passed. But one day a terrible thing 
happened. The powerful Powhatan, an Indian king, 
who lived on the Powhatan river, now called James 
river, in Virginia, made war upon the Croatan Indians, 
captured their town, and put all the people to death 
except a few who escaped. All the white people were 
murdered except four men, two boys, and a little girl. 
That little girl was Virginia Dare. 

Manteo, who was there, escaped, and with these 
seven white persons went to Hatteras, where his 
kindred dwelt. There Virginia grew to womanhood. 
She was so beautiful and wise that the Indians 
regarded her as some being that the Great Spirit had 
sent to them to guide and teach them. 

So they made her the queen of the tribe, and for 
many years the " Fair Goddess," as they called her, 
ruled wisely and well. The white men, who had 
escaped with her, married Indian girls. Thus the two 
races became united. 

pow ha tan' 


No one knows whether the story of Virginia Dare is 
true or not. It is a pretty one, and all of us would be 
glad to know that she really lived among the Indians 
and became their " Fair Goddess." 



Governor White was very sad the day he left 
Roanoke Island to go to England. He was still sadder 
when he reached England and found that he could not 
return to Roanoke Island in a long time. He grieved 
much during the three years that he had to wait. 

He thought of his daughter and little granddaughter 
far over the sea, waiting for him to come back. How 
his heart ached when he thought of them in danger in 
a strange land! Gladly he would have risked his life 
in their behalf. He would have started back imme- 
diately if he could have gotten away. 

As it was, no ship could leave England; for a great 
Spanish fleet, called the Invincible Armada, was 
coming to conquer the country. All the ships in the 
kingdom were pressed into service, and none was 
allowed to go away. Governor White had to join in 
the defense of his country. Still he was thinking all 
the time of little Virginia Dare and her mother in 
far-off North Carolina. 

At last the Spaniards came with their great army 
and fleet to attack England. They struck hard, but 

ar ma'da 


the English struck harder. They were beaten and 
nearly all of their ships were destroyed. The English 
rejoiced over the great victory. 

Then Governor White was relieved from service. He 
set out at once for North Carolina. He was glad that 
he was at last on his way back to see the little girl and 
her mother. His heart rejoiced, and yet he was afraid 
that something had happened to them in his absence. 
How glad he would be to see them all alive and well! 

Soon they came in sight of the shores of Roanoke 
Island. Governor White was looking to see if he could 
get a glimpse of some one on the shore. He saw a 
smoke rising in the direction of the settlement. He 
felt sure that it was coming from some of the houses 
of the settlers. Soon he would come to the shore and 
find them all there to receive him; and how happy 
they would all be in the reunion! 

Presently the ship came to the shore, but there was 
nobody in sight. They landed, but not a human being 
appeared. Governor White's heart began to fail him. 
He walked up the shore and called, but only the echo 
of his own voice replied. Then he went up the hill to 
the houses. The buildings looked deserted. As he 
came nearer, two deer came out from the bushes near 
the houses and ran away. 


Then he went up to the first house. Nobody was 
there. Weeds had grown up around it. The. footpath 
was hidden by grass. He went on to another, and 
then another, and found them all deserted. There 
was no sign of any human being. Nobody had been 
there for a long time. Everything was bare and 
gloomy. His heart sank within him. Tears came to 
his eyes, and he groaned aloud. 

What had become of them? He tried to answer the 
question. He looked around to see if there was any- 
thing that would help him to find out their where- 
abouts. There was no sign of any struggle. There 
had been no battle with the Indians. There was no 
evidence of hasty leaving except a box of old books 
and pamphlets that he found broken open. The books 
were scattered about, but that indicated no conflict. 

Presently he found something that gave him joy in 
those moments of sadness. On a tree was the word 
Croatan cut in large letters. That, then, was the place 
to which they had gone. His heart leaped for joy, for 
he felt sure he would find the lost colonists. 

Quickly he ran back to the ship and told the captain 
what he had found. He urged an immediate departure 
for the island of Croatan. But the captain was a man 
who cared nothing for Governor White or his people. 


He refused to go to Croatan. He said that the ship was 
without provisions, and that he had to go to the West 
Indies to get a supply. Governor White begged and 
threatened, but the man was deaf to all the feelings of 
a father and grandfather. 

In the midst of the dispute a violent storm came 
up. The ship was blown out to sea, and for three days 
was driven before the hurricane. W T hen the storm was 
over, it was found that the ship was damaged. They 
set out for England at once to repair the damage. After 
a few weeks they reached England in safety. 

Governor White tried to get another ship to come 
over in search of the lost ones. He tried in vain. He 
had no .money himself, and Sir Walter Raleigh, who 
had been furnishing the money, was now bankrupt. 
Eloquently he pleaded for help. With an aching heart 
he told of the hundred settlers at Croatan waiting for 
help from England. But he found no one to aid him. 
Heartbroken he gave up the struggle. He went to his 
home and lived in sadness until death relieved him of 
his misery. 

This is one of the saddest stories connected with the 
settlement of this country a story that appeals to all 
hearts. The settlers were living in distress among the 
Indians, waiting for relief that never came. 




After Governor White returned to England, it was 
more than sixty years before any more white people 
came to North Carolina to live. During that time sev- 
eral attempts were made to find Virginia Dare and the 
other colonists, but no one ever found them. 

Virginia and several other colonies had been settled 
during these sixty years. But North Carolina was a 
wilderness. No white people were known to be living 
there. Indians held possession of the land. They 
hunted and fished without knowing that the English- 
men were making settlements elsewhere. 

Soon daring men from Virginia came over into North 
Carolina to see what the country was like. They went 
down the Chowan river. to Albemarle Sound and exam- 
ined the country as they went. They found it to be rich 
and well watered. They then went back to Virginia 
and told the people there what they had seen. Many 
of the Virginia settlers wished to move at once over 
into North Carolina. They wished to get away from 
the tyranny of Governor Berkeley and to seek richer 

cho wan' 


Roger Green, a clergyman in Nansemond county, ap- 
plied to the king for permission to move south with his 
flock to the Chowan river. He secured a grant of ten 
thousand acres of land on the Roanoke and Chowan 
rivers, and resolved to move there. For several weeks 
preparations were made to start south. Wagons and 
horses were needed. Provisions had^to be collected. 
Clothing had to be made up to last until they became 
settled in their new home. A great many other things 
had to be looked after. After a while they were ready 
to start. Neighbors who were not going came to say 
good-bye. The wagons were loaded and the caravan 
started on its journey. Many miles through the forests 
lay before them. 

The company traveled very slowly, for there was no 
road and one had to be made as they proceeded. After 
weeks of hardships and hard work they came into the 
neighborhood of the Chowan. They halted and looked 
about far a suitable place to begin the settlement. Af- 
ter some delay, they selected a spot, and began the 
erection of houses to shelter them from the weather. 

Soon after the settlers began to build th.eir houses, 
several Indians came and lopked on. They did not 
seem at all "displeased, and said nothing to alarm the 


settlers. They watched the men use the saw and the 
axe and the hammer. 

These Indians belonged to the Yeopin tribe that 
lived higher up the Chowan. They went home and told 
what they had seen. Several days after, a considerable 
band of these Indians came. The settlers were some- 
what alarmed when they saw the Indians coming, but 
the redskins soon showed that they were not after blood 
or scalps. They halted some distance off and motioned 
for the white men to come nearer. Then by signs it was 
told the white men that they had no right to settle on 
the land, unless they bought it from the Indians. Soon 
a bargain was made. The Indians received in payment 
some cheap jewelry, hats, red handkerchiefs and simi- 
lar articles that pleased them very much. 

By hard work the settlers soon had houses for them- 
selves. Then they began to clear the land. They 
cleared large tracts, and year after year raised large 
crops of corn and tobacco. 

This settlement was made on the Chowan river, some 
miles north of Edenton, in 1653. It opened the way for 
other settlers, and in ten years there was quite a large 
number of people living in North Carolina. 

In 1663 Charles II., King of England, gave to eight 
of his lords all the country between Florida and the 


southern limit of Virginia and running westward to 
the "South Seas." This region had been called Caro- 
lina in honor of King Charles I., and kept this name 
when the first colony was formed in 1663. 



In 1660 a colony of men came from New England 
and made homes for themselves near the mouth of the 
Cape Fear river. They wanted to raise cattle to sell to 
people in London and other large cities, and thought 
that the land in that part of the country would make 
good pastures. 

That was long before Wilmington was settled. It 
was a few years before the colony on Albemarle Sound 
became established, and seven years after Green and 
his flock settled on the Chowan. 

At that time the land in North Carolina did not be- 
long to any one especially; or rather, it belonged to so 
many different ones that nobody knew who really had 
the best right to it. The king of England claimed it. 
So did certain Englishmen to whom the king had given 
it some years before. The Indians claimed it as their 
own; and it does seem that their right was the best 
one, for they were living on it. 

These men from New England traded with the In- 
dians, and bought a large tract of land on Old Town 
creek. The price paid was not large; only a few beads, 
finger rings and the like. They brought large numbers 


of cattle from New England and Virginia to stock their 
farms. These men were very industrious, and soon had 
good sheds and stalls for the cattle. They attended 
strictly to their business, and for a time the outlook 
seemed bright. 

In a short while, however, they began to see that 
the land was not so well suited for stock-raising as they 
had thought. Grass was not so plentiful as they had 
supposed. The cattle did not thrive well. Disease 
broke out among them, and it looked as if all their 
"money and time would be lost. 

As their cattle business was a failure, they deter- 
mined to make up for their loss in some way. So they 
began to lay plans to kidnap some Indian children, 
carry them off to the West Indies, and sell them as 
slaves to the Spaniards. There was near the camp a 
good-natured Indian family of several children. The 
white men had learned to talk with these Indians in 
their own language. They spent a good deal of the 
time with them and talked about the interesting things 
to be seen in other places. 

One of the shrewdest of the white men one day went 
to the Indian wigwam and asked if he might teach the 
little boys and girls how to read. The Indians had no 
schools, and did not know anything about reading. 


But they were glad to learn, and were delighted with 
the idea of "making paper talk" and learning to talk 
out of a book. So this shrewd man began to teach 
school in the wild Indian country. He told the Indians 
about the large schools in Massachusetts and the good 
teachers there. 

"They have large wigwams with long rows of seats 
for the boys and girls to sit on," said this schoolmaster. 
"They can teach Indians how to read quickly there." 

One of the Indian boys said that he would like to go 
to school in Massachusetts. Soon others said that they 
wanted to go, too. This was what the white man 
wanted, and he persuaded the parents to let the chil- 
dren go. So quite a large number of Indian boys and 
girls sailed one day from the Cape Fear in a boat be- 
longing to the settlers. They thought they were going 
to Massachusetts to school, but these wicked white 
men sent them to Cuba and sold them to the Spaniards. 

Time passed, and the fathers and mothers of these 
children began to think that it was time for the pupils 
to come back and spend a vacation at home. But they 
did not come; and the parents began to feel uneasy. 
They went to the white men and asked when the little 
Indians would come back. 

"It has been twelve moons," said the chief, "since 


they left, and we want to know when they are coming 

The white men said that school would be out in a few 
weeks, and then the little boys and girls would return. 
That satisfied the Indians for a time, but soon they sus- 
pected that they were being deceived. A large body 
of them went to the settlers and demanded that the 
children be returned at once. 

"We have waited," said the chief, "for our paleface 
brothers to bring back our children; but we do not in- 
tend to wait much longer." 

"If the next moon," said he, "does not bring them, we 
are going to tear down your houses and take your 

That was terrible news to these settlers, for none of 
them wanted to be scalped. So they concluded that 
they would leave before the Indians had time to get 
their knives sharpened. 

They got everything ready, and one night sailed 
away, never to return. The Indians, no doubt, grieved 
a long time because their little boys and girls had been 
stolen from them. But the poor children were slaves 
in the Spanish colonies. 

BOOK 11 

"We shall burn the paleface who has been selling our lands." 

29, Book n. 

North Carolina History Stories 


William Drummoud, the first governor of North Caro- 
lina, was a Scotchman. He came from Scotland to 
Jamestown, Virginia, when very young. He was in- 
dustrious and intelligent, and soon won the respect of 
the people of the Jamestown colony. 

In 1653, when people began to move from Virginia to 
the Chowan river in North Carolina, Drummond was 
one of the first to visit the new land. He went there 
with others interested, and w T hen the king gave the 
land to the Lords Proprietors, he reported to them that 
the land was fertile and well watered. 

A governor had to be appointed for this new colony 
in North Carolina. The men in England who owned 
the land in the colony sent word to Governor Berkeley 
of Virginia to appoint one. He went to the settlement 
on the Chowan, consulted with the people, and ap- 
pointed William Drummond. This was agreeable to 
the people of the colony. 



Governor Drummond went to North Carolina in 1663, 
and served as governor four years. He was very 
popular with the people, and governed them well. But 
for some reason Governor Berkeley removed him from 
office and put another man in his place. 

Drummond then went back to Jamestown to live. 
Governor Berkeley never liked Drummond after this, 
for he thought that the North Carolina governor would 
try to do him some harm. Drummond, however, lived 
quietly in Jamestown, and had very little to do with 
public matters. He was a friend of the people, and 
thought that they ought to have more freedom than 
Governor Berkeley gave them. 

The Indians had made war upon the settlers in Vir- 
ginia. They attacked the settlements on the James 
river, and killed many people. Governor Berkeley did 
nothing to stop the Indians from killing the people and 
destroying the crops. This negligence of the governor 
made the people band together for protection. 

About three hundred men formed a company to fight 
the Indians, and chose for their leader a young English- 
man named Nathaniel Bacon, who had come to the 
colony only three years before. Bacon and his men 
asked Governor Berkeley for a commission to march 
against the Indians, but the governor would not give it 


The people were compelled to protect themselves, so 
a number of them marched with Bacon against the 
Indians and drove them back. This made Berkeley 
very angry, and he said that these men should be pun- 

With four hundred men Bacon marched to James- 
town to demand his commission, which Berkeley 
granted. Again Bacon marched against the Indians 
and defeated them. While he was away from James- 
town Berkeley raised a force of men to resist Bacon 
and his followers. When Bacon returned from fighting 
the Indians he marched to Jamestown, and Berkeley 
was forced to flee to a ship in the river. 

Soon after this Bacon died, and his followers became 
scattered. Governor Berkeley returned, and showed 
himself to be a better fighter against his own people 
than he had been against the Indians. Many of 
Bacon's men were killed, or taken prisoners and 

One of the most active followers of Bacon was Wil- 
liam Drummond. He was taken prisoner and brought 
to Jamestown. Governor Berkeley showed a very bad 
temper when Mr. Drummond was brought before him. 

"Mr. Drummond," said the governor, "you are very 
welcome. I am more glad to see you than any man in 


Virginia. Mr. Drummond, you shall be hanged in half 
an hour." 

"Just as you please," replied Drummond. "I am your 
prisoner, and do not expect anything else than death." 

It took about two hours to erect a scaffold, to go 
through with a form of trial, and to pass sentence of 
death. Then Drummond was led out to the gibbet and 
hanged. Thus ended in disgrace, as it seemed, the life 
of the first governor of North Carolina, but to-day 
Drummond's name is honored by all who love liberty 
and uprightness. 

The people hated Berkeley so for his tyranny and 
cruelty that he went to England. The king refused to 
see him, and he died in disgrace. 



At one time the people of North Carolina were as 
hard to govern as headstrong schoolboys. They were 
very jealous of their rights, and would not submit to 
any ruler who tried to force them to do things against 
their will. 

They had settled in the wilderness because they were 
in search of homes where they might be free to live 
without oppressive laws; and they were not going to 
let their freedom be taken away from them without a 
struggle. So when the governor tried to make the peo- 
ple obey an unjust law, they declared that they would 
not. They took up arms against the governor and his 
men. This was in 1676. Peter Carteret was then gov- 

He tried to carry out the laws that were made in 
England by the Proprietors; but the people would not 
submit. When they disobeyed the laws, he punished 
them for it. Thus the colony was in a state of trouble 
and disorder. 

At that time there were two men living in North 
Carolina whose names were Thomas Eastchurch and 

kar'ter et 


Thomas Miller. These men 'had great influence with 
the people. Eastchurch was Speaker of the General 
Assembly, and Miller was very popular with the people. 
Both of them sided with the people in their struggle 
against the governor. 

Once Miller went to the governor and told him that 
the people would not submit to a certain law that he 
was trying to enforce. 

"I tell you, governor," said he, "these people are not 
going to give up their rights." 

Governor Carteret had him arrested for this lan- 
guage and sent to Jamestown for trial. He was turned 
loose, however. He then went to England to complain 
to the Lords Proprietors about his treatment. They 
listened to him and promised to make the matter right. 

Meanwhile Eastchurch had been sent to England by 
the people to tell the Proprietors that they would not 
submit to the unjust laws. The two men met in Lon- 
don and united in presenting their complaints. East- 
church was a handsome man, with plenty of good sense. 
The Proprietors heard him with pleasure, and were 
much impressed with him. They thought that East- 
church was the very man to be made governor of North 
Carolina, and so they appointed him to that office. 


Miller was appointed as secretary and collector of cus- 
toms in Albemarle. 

After being appointed, these two men set out for 
North Carolina to begin their labors. They had re- 
ceived more honors than they had ever hoped for. On 
the way across the ocean they stopped at the island of 
Nevis. There Eastchurch met a beautiful Creole lady, 
with whom he fell deeply in love. He forgot all about 
his duties in North Carolina, and lingered on the island 
in the company of this lady. 

After a while he sent Miller on to North Carolina 
to act as governor until he should come. Miller 
went to North Carolina and was welcomed by the peo- 
ple. He told them that Governor Eastchurch was on 
the way, and would arrive soon. 

Miller ruled \vell for a time, but soon the people be- 
came dissatisfied. There was a noted man in the colony 
named John Culpepper. He encouraged the people to 
'resist some of the demands of Miller. Trouble broke 
out, and the colony was again in danger of war. Miller 
was forced to give up his position and leave the colony. 

During all this time Eastchurch had remained on the 
island of Nevis. He had w r on the love of the beautiful 
Creole lady and had married her. Then he remem- 


U jteWtt CAROLINA HisfoaV 

bered that he was governor of North Carolina, and 
made haste to leave the island for his field of labor. 
Accompanied by his wife, he set out for home, but 
when he arrived there he found matters in bad shape. 
Miller had been deposed from office and John Culpep- 
per put in his place. No one received him as governor. 
He found himself in a country with a title to the high- 
est office, but another man filling the office. 

Eastchurch now began to realize what he had lost 
while he was stopping on the island of Nevis. He went 
to Virginia to see if he could get help to uphold his 
authority in North Carolina. No one there took any 
special interest in his case, and after many disappoint- 
ments and failures he died heartbroken. He had prom- 
ised a high position to his wife, the beautiful Creole 
lady, but she found herself a homeless exile with him. 
Yet she remained true to him to the last, and encour- 
aged him in every way in her power. 



About the year 1700 John Lawson came to North 
Carolina to live. His home had been in England. He 
wanted to see the New World, and so came over in one 
of the trading vessels. His boat landed at Charleston, 
South Carolina, and he stopped there about four 
months. It is probable that he would have decided to 
live there, but when some one told him that North 
Carolina was the most delightful country in the world, 
he came to this colony to find a home. 

Lawson was a very sensible man, and his coming was 
worth much to the colony. He was a good surveyor, 
and soon found plenty of work in his new home. The 
settlers made him surveyor-general of the colony. In a 
short while he became one of the best known men in the 

W T hile Lawson was surveying he kept a record of 
what he did each day. From this record he afterwards 
wrote a book about what he had seen and heard in 
North Carolina, and had it published under the name of 
"History of North Carolina." It was a very interesting 
book at the time. It told about the Indians, the ani- 


mals and the birds that lived in the swamps and forests 
where he had been surveying. The book is not printed 
now, but may be found in some of the old libraries 
owned by private individuals, and in the State library 
at Raleigh. 

Once Lawson had quite a strange experience. He 
was surveying land on the Neuse river not far from 
where Newbern now is. ^ear the bank of the river he 
had built a small house in which he could stay at night 
with his dog and a friendly Indian. In this house they 
dwelt for some weeks. About one mile away was an 
Indian village. 

One night Lawson was sitting in his little house. 
His dog was slumbering in the corner. His Indian 
companion had gone to the village to visit his people. 
Lawson was writing his journal and laying plans for 
his next day's work. It was in March, just before spring 
opens. Suddenly he heard a tremendous roaring di- 
rectly under his house. He did not know what to think 
of it. His dog became frightened and whined as if in 
great distress. The roaring would come in spells, and 
seemed to shake the earth under his feet. 

Lawson was a brave man, but this noise under his 
house made him feel very uncomfortable. He had 
never heard anything like it before. Presently he be- 


gan to think that it was some trick which the Indians 
were playing to steal his goods. So he decided that he 
would not go out of the house, and if the Indians 
wanted to steal anything from him they would have to 
break in. He stood inside and waited for the attack. 
But the attack did not come, though the noise under 
the house was kept up. It grew so loud that it shook 
the house and made a horrible din. The dog was almost 
dead with fear. Lawson himself started to rush from 
the house and seek a place of safety; but just as he was 
about to open the door some one knocked. It was the 
friendly Indian who had returned from the village. 

The Indian told Lawson what caused the noise. He 
said it was an alligator that had made its bed under the 
house deep down in the earth. There it had stayed all 
winter, asleep, but as spring had come the alligator 
was getting ready to come out of winter quarters. 
Lawson moved his house and gave the 'gator all the 
room he wanted. Afterwards he studied the habits of 
these animals, and found that on the approach of winter 
they went down into the mud and cut their way up 
to the highland, where they remained until spring. 
The house had been built over a nest of them, and they 
were getting ready to come out of their winter homes. 

Lawson lived about ten years in North Carolina. He 


went over most of the Albemarle and Neuse river sec- 
tions, but he never had another such experience with 
alligators. Lawson was afterwards put to death by the 
Indians in a verv cruel manner. 



There was once a man m the Alberaarle colony who 
had a way of persuading people to do things just as he 
told them, and who made a great deal of trouble. This 
man was John Porter. He lived in Edenton near the 
beginning of the eighteenth century. He was a very 
shrewd, but bad, man. His influence over the people of 
his time was wonderful. 

Most of the people who had settled in North Carolina 
had moved there to escape unjust laws and to secure 
the right to live without oppression. They were very 
quick, therefore, to oppose any law that was oppressive; 
and they were suspicious of those who were sent to rule 
over them. John Porter was one of the men who en- 
couraged the people to resist the governors that were 
sent to North Carolina. He did this without waiting to 
see whether the laws were right or wrong. 

When Colonel Carey became governor in 1705, John 
Porter began to stir up the people. He soon had them 
very much dissatisfied. Governor Carey made every 
one appointed to office take an oath that he would do 

his duty while in office. This was a right and necessary 


thing, but it displeased a large number of people. They 
did not believe in taking oaths for anything. 

John Porte*r did not care whether anybody took an 
oath or not, but he complained against this law of the 
governor's. In fact, he complained louder than any- 
body else, and tried to make the people think that it 
was a dreadful thing to take an oath. 

His loud complaints gave him a free ride to England; 
for the people chose him as a delegate to go there and 
ask that Governor Carey be removed from office. Por- 
ter was a good talker, and he soon persuaded the Pro- 
prietors to depose Carey and put another man in his 
place. They gave him a commission to go back to 
North Carolina and call a meeting of the people to elect 
another governor. 

Soon after his return, the citizens met and asked 
Governor Carey to give up the office. Then the dele- 
gates asked John Porter what they must do next. Some 
thought that he would have himself elected governor, 
but he did not. He told them to elect William Glover, 
and they did so. No doubt John Porter thought that 
Glover would do as he was told, but he was mistaken. 
No sooner was Glover made governor than he began to 
do the same things that Carey had done. This made 



Porter very indignant. He swore a big oath, which 
was the thing he was fighting, and said that he would 
have William Glover put out of the office. So he called 
the people together in another meeting and made a big 
speech to them. 

"We. made a mistake," said Boss Porter, "in electing 
this man Glover to rule over us. He is a rascal, and 
ought to be driven from the colony. We do not w r ant 
such a governor." 

"Down with him!" shouted the assembly, and Glover 
was voted out. Now was Porter's chance to make him 
self governor, but he turned his back upon the prize 
and walked out. He sent in word that he would return 
in a little while. He went straight to. the house of Colo- 
nel Carey and knocked at the door. Carey was sur- 
prised to see his old enemy coming to visit him. The 
two shook hands and went into the house. 

"Colonel Carey," said Porter, "I've come to get you to 
take the office of governor again." 

"You have?" said Carey, laughing. "That is strange. 
You must have forgotten what you did a short while 

"No, indeed!" replied the other, "but we want you on 
our side. You must come over and be one of us." 

So these men entered into a bargain, and Porter went 


back to have Carey re-elected to the office of governor. 
This was done, and the assembly adjourned. Governor 
Glover and the other men who were on his side fled to 
Virginia. John Porter and Carey ruled just as they 
wished for several years. 

After a while the Proprietors in England appointed 
Edward Hyde as governor. He came over in 1710. 
Governor Carey and John Porter seemed to be glad to 
see the new governor, and gave up the place without a 
word. It seemed that the troubles of the colony were 
over, but they were not; for John Porter loved to make 
trouble. Soon he aroused the people against Governor 
Hyde. He called them together and declared that Hyde 
was not governor. He then induced the people to elect 
Carey for the third time. Governor Hyde, however, 
did not run, as Glover had done. He had come there to 
be governor, and he was not going to be deposed. 

Carey and his followers said they were going to hang 
Governor Hyde if they could catch him. But Hyde was 
no coward. He collected as many men as he could and 
waited for Carey to come and hang him. Carey came, 
but Hyde and his men shot so rapidly and accurately 
that Carey and his followers decided to wait a few days 
before catching him. 

In a day or two Governor Hyde thought that , he 


would visit Carey and see if he had the rope ready for 
him. Carey did not wait to receive him, but fled to the 
swamps and carried the rope with him. 

Shortly afterwards Carey was captured and sent to 
England for trial. John Porter w r ent to the Indians 
and tried to rule them as he had the colonists; but he 
soon found that he could not do so. He did succeed, 
however, in bringing on a great Indian war. 



In the summer of 1711 John Lawson and several 
other men went up the Neuse river to explore the coun- 
try. Baron de Graffenreid, a Swiss nobleman, was in 
the company. He had brought over from England a 
large number of settlers, who had made homes for 
themselves near the mouth of the river. He wished to 
see whether there were good places for settlements up 
the river. Lawson, who was the surveyor-general of 
the colony, was also interested in the upland country. 
He was interested, also, in the birds and animals that 
lived in the swamps. 

The men carried provisions enough to last for several 
weeks. All along the river they noticed the large trees 
and beautiful flowers. The birds also were plentiful 
and pretty. Squirrels and foxes were often seen, and 
sometimes the howl of wolves was heard. John Law- 
son made notes of all these things. The white men 
thought it was a very beautiful country. Several times 
they stopped, and Lawson surveyed the lands on both 
sides of the river. 

For several days they had gone on without seeing an 


Indian. That seemed strange, for the red men had al- 
ways before come out to meet the white men. They 
had been very friendly to the white people. But now 
not one was to be seen. They seemed to have left the 
country. One day, however, while the white men were 
eating their midday meal, they saw a party of Indians 
watching them from a hill some distance away. The 
white men did not fear them, but they could not under- 
stand why they were watched by the Indians. They did 
not know that the savages had formed a plot to kill all 
the white people, and were at this very time on the war- 

After finishing their dinner, Lawson and his men 
went farther into the woods. They wanted to see the 
timber lands higher up the river. For some time they 
marched on without noticing that the Indians were fol- 
lowing them. Presently it was seen that a considerable 
body of red men was creeping along behind, trying to 
keep themselves hid behind. trees and undergrowth. 

"Look at those red devils," said Graffenreid. "Just 
as sure as the sun shines, they mean mischief. Don't 
you see they have on their war paint and plumes?" 

Lawson was quite sure that they were after scalps. 

"Yes, sir," answered he, "I am quite sure that we are 
going to have trouble, and if we get out alive it will be 


a kindness of Providence. I think they intend to at- 
tack us." 

"Let us then prepare to receive them," said the baron. 
"I, for one, do not want to be butchered without doing 
some damage in return." 

As it was nearly night, the party halted and made a 
fire to warm their food. There were only six or eight of 
them, and it seemed useless to resist if the redskins 
should make an attack. They felt quite sure that the 
attack would come, but they were in doubt as to how 
they should act. Graffenreid said that he was going to 
sell his life as dearly as he could. Lawson said that he 
was no fighter, but would defend himself to the last. 

Soon the attack came. About sixty of the savages 
rushed upon them with shouts and yells. The white 
men fought the best they could, but the Indians ran 
ever them, beat them to the ground, and bound their 
hands and arms. Then they were forced to travel all 
night with these Indians to a town some miles inland. 
Footsore and weary they reached the town early next 
day, and were delivered to the chief in charge. 

That afternoon a council of all the chiefs in the tribe 
was called to decide what should be done with the pris- 
oners. Lawson, Graffenreid and the others were car- 
ried into the assembly and made to stand in the center 


with all the chiefs seated around them. The king of 
the tribe from a high seat questioned them. 

"Why did our paleface brothers come up the river?-' 
asked he. "Have they come to spy our land and take it 
from us?" 

"No, indeed," said the baron. "We are looking for a 
short way to Virginia. If we wanted your land we 
would offer you money for it." 

"Did not Indians see the paleface brother with the 
chain, measuring our land on the river? How, then, 
can he say that he wants not the land?" 

Lawson told them that he measured the land so that 
he could draw a map of the country. Then he showed 
them one of the maps that he had drawn. They were 
much pleased with the map, and seemed to be satisfied 
with the explanation. Finally they decided that the 
prisoners should be released and sent home the next 
day. So Lawson and his friends slept soundly that 
night, for they felt that they would be allowed to go 
back home. But a far different fate awaited them. 

On the next day, instead of being turned loose, they 
were carried before another council and asked more 
questions. At this council was a Core Indian whom 
Lawson had known some time before, and with whom 
he had had some trouble. This Indian was a bitter 


enemy of the white people, and spoke against turning 
them loose. 

"Palefaces have taken away our lands," he said, "and 
now they are after yours. This man with the chain 
measures and sells to white men. He is the man that 
has turned our hunting grounds into cornfields. He is 
the man who will measure your land and plant corn in 
the places where the deer and the squirrel are now 
found. Would you rather have the white man's corn 
growing upon your land or the deer and the quail there? 
O, Tuscaroras, look well to your hunting grounds!" 

This speech made a deep impression on the savages. 
Lawson and his companions were beaten with clubs 
and condemned to death. The council broke up to carry 
out the sentence. They were roughly dragged to the 
place of execution. 

"Would you put a king to death?" asked the baron. 
"Such a thing is never done. It would grieve the Great 

"Who is king?" questioned the Indians, almost all 
at once. 

"I am king of fifteen hundred palefaces, who are now 
looking for me," answered the baron. "They would 
tus'ka ro'ras 


never forgive their dark-skin brothers if their king were 
put to death." 

The chiefs talked together very rapidly and excitedly. 
There appeared to be two parties among them one for 
execution and the other for turning the prisoners loose. 
Finally a compromise was agreed upon, and the great 
chief came to the white men and said with much earn- 

"Palefaces, you are in our hands. We can do with 
you what seems best to us. Nothing can save you from 
our power. We shall burn the paleface who has been 
selling our land, but the king we shall hold as a pris- 
oner to keep his people from making war on us. Now 
you have heard our decision." 

The baron was led away to another part of the vil- 
lage, and Lawson was stripped of his clothing. They 
then made hundreds of sharpened lightwood splinters, 
keen at both ends. They stuck these splinters into the 
flesh, of poor Lawson and danced around him with de- 
light. Then these human devils bound Lawson to a 
stake. They danced the war dance around him and 
sang their dreadful songs. Presently they set fire to 
the splinters and burned him to death. 

The baron could hear what was going on, and knew 
that the Indians were tormenting their prisoner. 


Soon the savages came to him and told him that they 
had killed Lawson. Graffenreid was afraid they had 
come for him to share the same fate. But the chief 
said that he would be held as a prisoner, and that his 
life would be spared. Graffenreid's negro man was in 
the same room, and the Indians looked at him as if to 
say, "It is your turn now." 

"King of the palefaces," said the chief, "you need not 
be afraid, for we will not kill you. But Indian braves 
want more song and more dance to-night. Your black 
man must be burned." 

This was dreadful news to the baron, for he was very 
fond of the faithful negro, who had been with him 
so long and had served him so well. He tried to change 
the redskins from their purpose. 

"This poor fellow," the baron said, "has never done 
any harm to the Indians. He came because I did. 
Spare him and you shall be rewarded." 

"He give Indians fun," grunted the chief. 

As night came on more Indians came into the village. 
They made large fires here and there. Sometimes they 
would yell like madmen, and the blood of the white 
man ran cold and the poor negro was almost dead with 
fear. Finally they came and seized the negro and 
carried him off. He struggled with his enemies, but 


they dragged him along to the place of execution. 
There they bound him to the stake. Then they piled up 
pieces of dry pine wood around him and set them on 
fire. Then they danced around the sufferer until death 
relieved him of his agony. 

Such things are dreadful to relate, but they hap- 
pened long ago, before the white people had come in 
numbers large enough to prevent it. It was against 
such savages that the settlers had to contend, to make 
this country the home of the white men. 

The savages held the baron for a long time as their 
prisoner. They let him go when he promised them that 
he would not make war upon them. He kept the 
promise, and would not join in the war which the white 
people made upon the Indians the next year. 



When John Porter was driven away from the settle- 
ment on the Chowan river, he went to the country of 
the Indians. They received him kindly, for they had 
always been on friendly terms with the white people. 
But it was not very long before he persuaded them to 
begin a war against the settlers. He told them that the 
colonists had been getting ready for some time to drive 
the Indians away from their lands, and were only wait- 
ing to receive guns and ammunition from England. 

There was a noted chief among the Tuscaroras, 
named Handcock. He had never been a friend to the 
settlers. He listened to Porter's story with delight. 
He questioned him, and found out that the settlers 
were fighting each other, or rather that there were two 
factions that were opposed to each other. Porter gave 
him all the information he wanted, and often he told 
things that were untrue. Handcock was pleased with 
the idea of attacking the settlers, and called the chiefs 
together to decide upon the plan. 

When all the chiefs had come together under a large 
oak tree, he arose and said to them in his own language: 

"Tuscarora chiefs, most fleet of foot and strong in 


arms, you are the masters of chis land. You have re- 
ceived it as a gift from the Great Spirit. You and your 
fathers have hunted the deer by the banks of the rivers 
and chased the raccoon and the fox in these woods. It 
is yours to live upon. It is yours to leave to your chil- 
dren. Will you give it up to the palefaces who have 
come among us? I know you will not, for it is your 
right to stay here." 

Handcock then told them the story which Porter had 
told him : how the settlers were only waiting to get help 
from England to drive them from their homes. For 
a while all were silent. Then Tom Blunt, another chief, 
arose and said that he would like to hear from the pale- 
face brother. Porter replied that there was a division 
among the white people; some wanted to begin war 
upon the Indians at once, while others opposed it. He 
himself had opposed it, and for that reason he had to 
leave the settlement. That was a big falsehood, but 
the Indians did not know that it was. 

The matter of beginning war upon the settlers was 
next discussed. Handcock and a majority of the chiefs 
were in favor of war, but Tom Blunt and a few others 
opposed it. When the vote was taken it was seen that 
all except a few chiefs favored immediate war. Tom 
Blunt and those who sided with him withdrew from 


the convention and carried the matter to their follow- 
ers. They remained neutral in the war, and for their 
fidelity were afterwards rewarded. 

Handcock set about making preparation for war. 
The matter was kept a profound secret. Even Blunt 
and his followers kept the matter to themselves. 

When the Indians were ready to strike the fatal 
blow, twelve hundred Tuscarora warriors assembled in 
the forest to begin their work of death. There they 
divided into three commands. One division was to 
strike the settlements on the Pamlico, another the set- 
tlements on the Roanoke, and a third those on the 

Silently they began their march. They approached 
the appointed places in the afternoon of the day before 
they were to make the attack. The settlers were uncon- 
scious of any danger. They were going about their 
regular business without a thought of trouble. 

Out in the forest the Tuscarora army was waiting for 
sunrise before making an attack. Many of them threw 
aside their various weapons of war and came into the 
settlements, mixing with the people whom they ex- 
pected to murder next day. They appeared to be 
friendly, and the settlers treated them with kindness, 
little thinking that the next day would be their last. 


When night came the Indians in the villages disap- 
peared to join their comrades in the woods. 

At sunrise a dreadful warwhoop was heard, and the 
settlers were astonished to see their homes surrounded 
by a band of fierce savages. It was in vain that the 
white men seized their arms. The settlements were 
scattered, and the settlers were compelled to fight sin- 
gle-handed against large bodies of Indians. So it was 
not a battle, but a massacre. Those of the whites who 
escaped the first attack fled to the forests. Women and 
children ran for life, but often it was death that they 
found. Many were overtaken and cut down. 

The torch was applied, and it consumed what the 
tomahawk left. Houses that had cost years of toil were 
burned. Fields of grain were destroyed. Cattle were 
killed. Nothing was left to meet the wants of those 
who escaped. 

This dreadful massacre had happened at three dif- 
ferent settlements at the same time. Those who es- 
caped the slaughter came near starving in the woods 
before help could reach them. But assistance came 
after a while, and with it a cry for vengeance upon the 
redskins. With such an act as an example, it was seen 
that there could be no compromise with the Tuscaroras. 
They must be destroyed or driven out of North Carolina. 

Such was the determination of every white man. 



After the Tuscaroras had killed so many white peo- 
ple, they went back into the forests to see what would 
be done. They believed that the settlers would make 
war upon them. To prepare for it, they built a strong 
fort about twenty miles from Newbern, and placed in 
it all their weapons and war supplies. 

As the settlers felt that they were unable to whip 
the Indians, they sent messengers to Virginia and 
South Carolina for help. Both colonies promised to 
send troops. South Carolina was the first to send them. 

Colonel John Barnwell, with an army of friendly 
Indians and a few whites, came rapidly to the assist- 
ance of the settlers. When he got to Newbern he found 
out that the Tuscaroras were not far from there. He 
was ready to fight them, and lost no time in going in 
search of them. As he came into the neighborhood of 
the fort, he found that the Indians were posted just 
ahead, in the woods, in considerable numbers. Barn- 
well was glad to hear of this, for he preferred to fight 
them in the field rather than to attack them in their 
fort. So he ordered his men to halt and prepare for 


He then sent some of the friendly Indians to find out 
exactly the position of the Tuscaroras. Soon they came 
back and said that it would be hard to drive the enemy 
from their position, but it could be done. 

"Prepare for action!" said Colonel Barn well. "For- 
ward! March! Stop not until the fort has been taken!" 
With a rush the South Carolina Indians and whites as- 
saulted the position of the Tuscaroras, and carried 
everything before them. The Tuscaroras fought 
bravely, but they could not stand the rush that was 
made upon their line. In a very short time three hun- 
dred of them were killed. The others fled to the fort 
and shut themselves up in its walls. 

In this fort they had gathered all their wealth from 
the fields and from the forests. The old men and women 
as well as the boys and the girls were there. In fact, 
this was the last stand, as they thought, of the Tusca- 
rora nation. 

Barnwell approached the fort with much caution. 
He drew his lines around it with a firm grip. Then 
leading a charge he went up to the very walls, but he 
was wounded and had to be taken from the field. His 
men fell back. 

The Indians in the fort were joyous. They gave a war- 
whoop, leaped upon the wall, and were about to make a 


charge upon Barnwell's men, when Colonel Mitchell 
wheeled his cannon into line and began to fire grape- 
shot at them. They leaped back into the fort to protect 
themselves. Mitchell moved his gun toward the fort, 
firing as he went. Eis shots struck the walls, which 
began to give way; but just as his gun was about to 
make an opening an order was received from Colonel 
Barnwell to cease firing, and to retreat to his former 

"What is the matter with the colonel?" asked Mitch- 
ell. "Can't he see that the fort is ours, and that it will 
take only half a dozen more shots to destroy the walls?" 

Much to his sorrow he had to obey this order and 
withdraw his company. That left the Indians in the 
fort free from attack again. A big Indian at once 
mounted the wall and waved as if he wished to say 
something to some one in Barnwell's army. A friendly 
Indian was directed to approach and hear what he 
might say. 

"Hear, O white men!" he said; "you have killed many 
of our braves. Why do you wish to kill our women and 
children? If you will let us go from this place with 
our wives and children, we will leave the country and 
brethren on the shores of the great northern 


waters. If you will not, then we go anyhow, but much 
blood of the white men will be shed." 

This speech displeased Colonel Mitchell and the 
North Carolina troops in the army; but Colonel Barn- 
well accepted the terms offered, and allowed the In- 
dians to march out of the fort with their arms and 
equipments. Then his men took charge of the deserted 

Soon after this the South Carolina Indians committed 
some outrage against the Tuscaroras, who again flew 
to arms, and declared that they would not leave their 
homes. They said that they would die rather than give 
up their hunting grounds to the palefaces. 



Colonel Barnwell had to return to South Carolina to 
recover from the wound he had received in the fight at 
Fort Barnwell. Most of the Indians that were in his 
party returned to South Carolina with him. Only a few 
remained; and they had all they could do to restrain 
the cruel Tuscaroras, who had broken their promise to 
leave the country and go north. 

Governor Hyde died about this time, and Colonel 
Thomas Pollock was elected to fill the place of gover- 
nor. He sent to Virginia and South Carolina for help, 
as Governor Hyde had done the year before. South 
Carolina was again the one to answer first. Governor 
Craven, of that State, sent G lonel James Moore with a 
large force of friendly Indians and a few whites to help 
the people of North Carolina against the Tuscaroras. 
This force came into North Carolina in the latter part 
of November, 1712. They had to remain in camp all the 
winter on account of the bad weather. 

Late in February they set out for the Indian country, 
and reached there about the first of March. This was 
in the present county of Greene. 


The Indians had built a strong fort on a little hill, 
and had gathered there all the wealth of the Indian 
nation. They called this fort Nahucke. In it all the old 
men and women were gathered. The little Indian boys 
and girls were also there. This was their strongest 
fort, and this was the place where they expected to 
make their most stubborn fight. 

Moore came in sight of the fort early in March. The 
Tuscaroras knew that he was coming, and had sent out 
bodies of Indians to watch his movements. These In- 
dians had retreated ahead of him, and at last had gone 
into the fort. Colonel Moore halted and took a good 
look at the Indian stronghold. It seemed a stronghold 
indeed, but he resolved to take it. He ordered his men 
to form in four divisions, so that the fort might be at- 
tacked on four sides at once. 

These divisions went to the places assigned them, 
and began to approach the fort slowly. The Indians 
saw what the whites were doing, and laughed at them. 
They said to themselves: "Do the palefaces expect to 
find us asleep on any side? We can see them, no mat- 
ter how they come." 

Suddenly Moore's men ran towards the walls. But 
the Tuscaroras were watching, and let fly their arrows, 
which wounded many of the attacking party, and the 


others retreated. Soon they made another charge, but 
the Indians in the fort again repulsed them. 

Colonel Moore now concluded to rest his men. They 
did not fight again for several days. During that time 
the Indians in the fort climbed up on the walls and 
waved their plumes at those outside, and asked them 
if they did not want to come in. But Moore's men said 
nothing in reply. After a while all the men became 
anxious to attack the fort. They had rested, and were 
now ready to begin. This was what Colonel Moore 
wanted. He thought that if his men became eager for 
the battle they would fight more bravely. 

At last he told his men they might take the fort. He 
formed them into one line, and led them against the 
stronghold. The Indians saw them coming, and thought 
they could easily drive them back. As the whites and 
Indians came nearer, the Tuscaroras leaped over the 
walls and met their enemies in a hand-to-hand fight. 
At first the South Carolina Indians were beaten back 
by this unexpected charge. But they soon recovered 
themselves and stood firm. 

The Tuscaroras then retreated to the fort, but soon 
made another wild rush upon the South Carolinians. 
They were beaten back again. They became desperate, 
and with a loud yell ran upon their enemies and fought 


at close range. Many were killed on both sides. The 
Tuscaroras broke through the ranks of the enemy and 
fled. They did not look back to see if they were being 
pursued, but ran to another fort they had built about 
twenty miles away. 

Fort Nahucke was taken. Moore, went in and found 
about eight hundred Indians inside, mostly old men, 
women and children. All of these were given to the 
South Carolina Indians to reward them for the aid they 
had given the colony. They at once took the captives 
to Charleston and sold them into slavery. 

Soon after the fall of Fort Nahucke, Colonel Moore 
led his army against the other Indian fort to which the 
Tuscaroras had fled. But the Indians did not await his 
arrival. They left this fort and fled up the Roanoke 
river, through Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania to 
New York, where they joined the Iroquois, and helped 
to make the six nations in that State. 

Thus all the Tuscaroras left North Carolina except 
Tom Blunt and the others who had remained friendly 
to the whites. 




In the Indian war that followed the massacre of the 
white people in 1711, Tom Blunt remained friendly to 
the colonists. He was a Tuscarora chief, but opposed 
Chief Handcock in beginning the war upon the settlers. 

As soon as the war began he retired to his own vil- 
lage and called his followers around him. He made 
them a speech, in which he advised them to take no 
part in the war. 

"My braves," said he, "you will be asked by the other 
chiefs to go with them against the palefaces. You 
should tell them that the white brothers have never 
done you any harm, and that you do not want to kill 
them. I tell you that a great calamity will come to you 
if you make war upon the palefaces. I beg you not to 
do it." 

That speech kept a part of the. tribe from joining in 
the war. Blunt and his followers staid in their tents 
and kept their own counsel. They would not help the 
Indians, but they also refused to aid the settlers. After 
the war had been going on for some time, Colonel Pol- 
lock tried to get Blunt to join the white people against 
the Tuscaroras. He used all the persuasion he could 


and made several promises, but the Indian chief would 
not consent to lift his hand against his own people. 

After the capture of Fort Barnwell, when the Indian 
cause seemed to be lost, Colonel Pollock went to the 
Indian village himself to visit Tom Blunt. There they 
talked over the matter for a long time. 

"The Tuscaroras," said Colonel Pollock, "are doomed 
to destruction. Our people have made up their minds 
to drive them from the land, because they killed our 
friends in cold blood. I want to save you from the same 
fate. Tom Blunt has always been a friend to the pale- 
faces. He does not want to be an enemy to the white 

"Join us against the other Indians," urged Colonel 
Pollock, "and you and your town shall be saved, and 
you shall be made king of all the tribes that remain in 
the country." 

"That is a big offer," said the chief; "can my brother 
do as he says?" 

"Yes," said the colonel, "and I'll see that you have a 
large hunting ground on the left bank of the Roanoke." 

Tom Blunt promised that he would join the whites 
against the Indians. But he asked that he be allowed 
to make war upon the Cores and Pungos instead of the 
Tuscaroras. "For," said he, "I cannot fight my own 


people, but I will destroy the Cores and the Pungos, for 
they are the enemies of my race." 

So it was agreed that Blunt and his followers should 
march against those tribes, while the whites should 
attack the Tuscaroras. 

Blunt soon had everything in order, and set out with 
a considerable body of Indians to attack the hostile 
tribes in Beaufort and Hyde counties. He was rapid in 
his march, and came up with them near the shores of 
Lake Mattamuskeet. The Pungos were not expecting 
an attack. They were having a great frolic over a mas- 
sacre they had just made. Tom Blunt and his Tusca- 
roras charged upon them, killed a few, and put the rest 
to flight. Then he burned their village and hunted the 
braves in the swamps until he had killed or captured a 
great many. The others begged for peace. 

Blunt then crossed the Pamlico river and came into 
the country of the Cores. This tribe lived in what are 
now Pamlico and Carteret counties. They were not 
strong in numbers, but had joined with the Tuscaroras 
in making war upon the settlers. For that reason Tom 
Blunt was sent against them. Blunt and his men 
fought the Cores wherever they could be found. Soon 
their country was desolate and they were suing for 


peace. Then Blunt went back home. He had carried 
out his part of the contract. 

It was about this time that Fort Nahucke was cap- 
tured. The war was nearly over, and Blunt was ex- 
pecting his reward. Colonel Pollock sent some men to 
measure off a large tract of land on the Roanoke for the 
friendly Indians. This was given to Tom Blunt and his 
followers. The other Indians that still remained were 
also allowed to go there and make homes for them- 

Governor Pollock and the council gave to Tom Blunt 
the title of king; and he was called King Blunt by both 
the Indians and the white people. For many years 
King Blunt ruled in the Indian country. He was al- 
ways a steadfast friend of the settlers. Through him 
peace w r as kept between the white people and the In- 
dians in North Carolina. After his death the Indians 
became dissatisfied with their homes on the Roanoke. 
So they sold them to the settlers, and went to join their 
brethren around the Great Lakes. Thus the last of the 
Tuscaroras left North Carolina. 


"Maynard was the better swordsman and soon ran Blackbeard 
through and through." Page 13, Book HI. 

North Carolina History Stories 


Men who rob people on the sea are called pirates. 
Those who do the same thing on land are called rob- 

About two hundred years ago pirates lived on the 
coast of North Carolina. This State was then a colony 
of England. Many of these pirates had large ships, 
equipped with cannon and other weapons for fighting. 

Sometimes the pirates would seize a passing ship, kill 
all the people on board, and take all the valuable things 
they had. Then they would throw all the dead bodies 
into the sea and send the ship adrift or sink it. There 
was no safety on the sea for travelers. They never 
knew when these bad jnen would attack them. 

One of the boldest and most cruel of these pirates 
was Edward Teach. He wore a long black beard, Avhich 
he twisted into locks and wound around his ears. This 
made him look frightful. He was called Blackbeard 
by both his friends and his enemies. 
7 (7) 


When Blackbeard was going into battle he would 
fasten lighted tapers to his hat and ears in order to 
frighten his enemies. His followers feared him, and 
did his bidding without hesitation. He had a very high 
temper, and no one dared to oppose him. 

For many years Teach had been a pirate in the West 
Indies. He gained a considerable fortune by his rob- 
beries, and then gave up his wicked ways. He came to 
North Carolina and bought a farm near Bath, in Beau- 
fort county. There he settled down to enjoy his money. 
Why he came nobody ever knew. It was not long after- 
wards that he married his thirteenth wife. It is not 
known what he had done with the other twelve. He 
became a farmer, and seemed to have given up his old 
habits entirely. 

One d~y Blackbeard was at Bath and bought a ship. 
He manned it with some of his old followers, who had 
been living near the town. He said that he was going 
to the West Indies to trade, and would return in a few 
months. When he came back, he towed into the har- 
|t)or of Bath a large French vessel, loaded with sugar 
and cocoa. He said that he had found the vessel aban- 
doned at sea. No one believed this story. Every one 
thought that he had captured the ship and taken it as 
his own, after killing all the crew. 


Teach began to sell the cargo. He also gave away 
much of it. He sent several barrels of sugar to Gover- 
nor Eden and some cocoa to Judge Knight. These men 
were afterwards accused of taking bribes, or hush 
money, from the pirate; for it soon became evident that 
he had again become a pirate. 

Soon after this he put to sea with his band of pirates, 
and for many years was a terror to merchants and sea- 
men along the coast of the southern colonies. His fleet 
was made up of six fast sailing vessels, each one armed 
with cannon and manned by bloodthirsty seamen. 

At one time Blackbeard captured a vessel off the 
coast of South Carolina. Samuel Wragg, a member of 
the legislature of South Carolina, was on board He 
was robbed of all the money he had, and, as he was a 
rich man, they did not kill him, but held him for ran- 
som. Many of the pirates were sick at the time, and 
Blackbeard wanted medicine for them. So he sent four 
of his men to Charleston to demand the medic/. r 3. They 
told Governor Johnson that Wragg was in i '.eir hands, 
and that his head would be sent to the governor the 
next morning by breakfast time if he did not send the 
medicine. Governor Johnson did not wane Wragg's 
head for breakfast, so he sent the medicine s.nd saved 
the prisoner's life. 


Blackboard did many other bold and daring things. 
His fleet blockaded all of the southern ports, and kept 
the people in a state of alarm. His headquarters were 
on the Island of Providence, in the Bahamas. From 
that place the pirates scoured the sea in every direction, 
and brought much booty back with them. 

This went on for a number of years. The people were 
getting very tired of having their ships taken and their 
sailors killed. They could stand these things no longer, 
so they sent to England for help. 

At last a strong fleet was sent out against these sea 
robbers. It was commanded by Captain Woods Rogers. 
He was a good sailor, and knew how to fight pirates. 
He found out their hiding place and sailed there at 
once. As soon as he came to the island, he surrounded 
it with his fleet. The pirates saw that they were caught. 
Captain Rogers gave them the choice of surrendering, 
or of being shot to pieces. They decided to surrender. 

Blackboard was not there. He was somewhere on 
the sea, carrying on robbery and murder. Soon he and 
the others that escaped Captain Rogers came to North 
Carolina and established headquarters in Pamlico 
Sound, near Bath. His flagship was called Queen Anne's 
Revenge. It carried forty cannon and had a crew of one 


hundred men. He had five other ships that hovered 
near the mouth of the Cape Fear river. 

Blackbeard himself staid in and around Pamlico 
Sound. All trade between North Carolina and other 
countries was cut off; for the pirates would capture all 
vessels either coming in or going out. It was a bad 
state of affairs. People were afraid to send off their 
goods, or even to travel. They were almost wholly shut 
out from the world. 

After a while they made up their minds to get rid of 
this pirate who was troubling them so much. So they 
sent a messenger to Captain Ellis Brand, who com- 
manded the English fleet at Hampton Roads, to ask aid. 
Captain Brand was glad to find out where Blackbeard 
was. He sent Lieutenant Maynard with a strong force 
to capture the pirates or destroy them. 

Blackbeard soon learned that Maynard was coming. 
He did not try to get away. He thought himself able 
to meet any force that might come. He remained near 
Ocracoke and waited for Maynard. 

Maynard left the James river, in Virginia, as soon as 


he received orders from Captain Brand, and sailed di- 
rectly for Ocracoke. He reached the inlet after a voy- 
age of a few days. There he halted to rest his men and 
prepare for a fight with the pirates. He expected to 


find Blackbeard just across the bar. He was not mis- 
taken; for the pirates were waiting for him. 

Lieutenant Maynard was a brave man and a good 
fighter. He was also very strong. He was a good match 
for Blackbeard, and was anxious to meet the chief of 
the pirates in a hand-to-hand fight. 

After he had refitted and put everything in order, he 
sailed across the bar into the sound. There before him 
was the big ship of the pirates. He was very glad to see 
it. Now he would end the career of this bad man and 
free the people. He turned his ship toward the pirates 
and advanced rapidly upon them. Blackbeard was 
ready, and gave his enemy a broadside. Many of May- 
nard's men were swept overboard by the first fire. But 
he continued to advance, and would have grappled with 
the pirate but for an unfortunate mishap. 

His vessel ran aground and stuck fast. Great fear 
seized the men, and it looked as if all would be lost. 
Blackbeard continued to fire upon the stranded ship 
with all his guns. Twenty of Maynard's men were 
killed, and the fire from the pirate's ship did not 
slacken. Then Maynard thought that he would try a 
trick. His vessel could not go to the pirates, so he 
would make them come to him. He ordered all his me 



to go down into the hold of the vessel. No one was left 
on the deck but the dead and the dying. 

Blackbeard thought that all of Maynard's men were 
either killed or wounded, and moved his ship up along- 
side to take possession. Blackbeard and twenty of his 
men leaped aboard Maynard's ship. Instantly they 
were met by twenty of Maynard's men, who rushed up 
from below with the lieutenant at their head. The 
pirates were taken completely by surprise, and stag- 
gered backward. 

They quickly recovered themselves and the battle 
began. Every one knew that it was to be a fight to the 
*finish. There could be no such thing as a drawn battle. 
One side or the other must win, and woe to the con- 

Each man picked out his foe, and the battle became 
fierce. Blackbeard hunted for Maynard, and the lieu- 
tenant met him. They fired their pistols at each other 
and drew their swords. They rushed together and 
fought hand-to-hand. Maynard was -the better swords- 
man and soon ran Blackbeard through and through. 
The pirate fell dead. At once all the other pirates sur- 
rendered. Maynard cut off Blackbeard's head, put it 
on the bow of his ship, and sailed away with his prison- 


Later all of the captured pirates were hanged. No 
doubt they deserved it. The people of North Carolina 
were very grateful to Lieutenant Maynard for putting 
an end to Blackbeard's life. * 



Daniel Boone was a great hunter. He lived in the 
mountains on the banks of the Yadkin river. No man 
in all the country could handle a gun as he could. 
Whenever he pointed a gun at a squirrel, poor bunny 
knew that death was near. The bears and the deer 
knew his step, and ran for their lives whenever he was 

Long before the Revolution, his father came with his 
family from Pennsylvania to North Carolina to live. 
He bought some land in Wilkes county, and built his 
home. Daniel helped to cut down the trees and clear 
up the fields. Daniel's father ploughed the land, and 
planted corn and wheat. Soon there was a good farm 
cleared up in the forest. On it Daniel lived with his 
father and mother. He learned while a boy to handle a 
gun, and often brought back meat enough from the 
woods to last for weeks. Sometimes he would take 
long hunting trips and be gone for quite a while. After 
a time he married and had a home of his own. 

Not many years passed before other people began to 
come into the Yadkin country to live. Land was cleared 
up all around Boone's house, and here and there over 


the hills houses could be seen which the newcomers had 
built. It was beginning to look like the place the 
Boone's had left in Pennsylvania. Daniel did not like 
for so many people to be living near him. He said he 
wanted "elbow room." 

"If these people keep coming," said he, "soon there 
will not be a bear in all this country." 

He thought more about bears than he did about peo- 
ple. He soon became restless, and went off on a long- 
hunt across the mountains into what is now the State 
of Tennessee. Two or three backwoodsmen went along 
with him. That was in 1760, while the French and 
Indians were fighting the English colonies. 

Boone and his companions crossed the Great Smokies 
and hunted in the valley of the Holston river. They 
killed a great many deer, and now and then other game 
was brought down. They had some interesting adven- 
tures with the Indians, and also some exciting chases 
after bears. 

One day, as they were passing along a creek in Wash- 
ington county, Boone saw some bear tracks. They had 
just been made, and he knew that the animals could 
not be far away. He at once followed in the direction 
the bears had gone. He did this cautiously, to keep from 
scaring the brutes. Very soon he came in sight of them. 


There were three, two old ones and a young one. They 
were walking slowly along through the woods 

Boone crept up and shot one of the old ones dead. 
The other old one saw him and ran directly toward him. 
Boone fired at it, but, strange to say, the animal kept 
coming. It was a bear of great size, and Boone did not 
wish to come to a hand-to-hand fight. He had no time 
to reload his gun, so he looked this way and that for a 
chance to escape. 

Near by was a large tree with branches hanging 
down. He ran to this and climbed up to the first limbs. 
Bruin was a climber, too, and began to follow up the 
tree. Boone made his way to the top of the tree. The 
bear followed, going from limb to limb. 

When Boone got up as high as he could, he looked 
down to see where the bear was. He saw Bruin coming 
up as fast as he could. Boone did not know what to do. 
The bear would be up to him in less than a minute, and 
there was no time to load the gun. Boone pulled out 
the ramrod of the gun, and when the bear came in reach 
Boone whacked him over the nose with it. Bruin 
whined with pain and backed clown the tree out of 
Boone's reach. Then he tried again to get to Boone; 
but when he came close enough, down came the ramrod 


again upon his nose, harder than before. The bear 
roared with pain. 

The bear then went down out of reach and seemed to 
be studying what next to do. Boone used this time to 
load his gun. Then he took good aim and shot the bear 
in the head. It was a good shot, and Bruin began to 
go down the tree. He was badly wounded and bleeding 
freely. Boone loaded again and shot the bear a second 
time. This shot was fatal, and the brute fell heavily to 
the ground. Then Boone came down the tree, reach- 
ing the ground just as his companions came up. 

"Ah! Boone," said one of them, "who was up the tree, 
you or the bear?" 

"The bear," answered Boone; and that was all he 
ever told them about his adventure with the bear. He 
then cut these words in the bark of the tree: "D. Boone 
killd a bar on tree in the year 1760." It is said that the 
tree is still standing and that these words can be seen 
on it. While his spelling might have been better, his 
shooting could not be beaten. 

Shortly after that the huntsmen returned to the 
banks of the Yadkin; but Boone was restless in his old 
home and wanted to get out farther into the forest. He 
wanted still more "elbow room." 

Nine years later Boone sold his home in Wilkes 


county, and went into Kentucky to make another home. 
That State was then owned entirely by the Indians. 
They called it Kaintuckee, "the Dark and Bloody 
Ground," for the Indians were constantly fighting one 
another there, and much blood was shed. Five other 
men went with Boone. Their names were John Stuart, 
Joseph Holden, James Moncey, William Cool, and John 
Findly. They were all old hunters. On the way they 
found game enough to satisfy their needs, and they 
had many adventures with the Indians. 

In order to get to the new country easily, they had to 
open a road across the mountains. That took a long 
time. Many dangers befell them, but they finally com- 
pleted it. 

The Indians troubled them a good deal with their 
tricks, but Boone was more than a match for them. 
Once while they were at work they heard a wild turkey 
gobble near them. One of the men told Boone to go 
out and kill the turkey for dinner. 

"Not much!" said Boone; "that turkey is not the right 
kind. It is an Indian trying to get a chance to put a 
ball through my head." 

Another time they heard some owls hooting in the 
woods near by. They were keeping up a big racket as 
if they were much excited. 


"Let us go and see what those owls have found," said 
Findly. "They are keeping up such a noise that I think 
they have found a gang of turkeys." 

"Don't you know that they are not owls?" asked 
Boone. "Notice where the sound comes from. Owls 
do not sit on the ground." 

Sure enough, the sounds came from the ground, and 
they knew that Indians were making them. Then one 
of the hunters crept slowly along toward the place 
where the sounds came from. He was keener eyed 
than the Indians, and soon saw what looked like a 
stump in the woods. He fired at the stump and an 
Indian fell over with a groan. He had killed a red man. 

When the road was finished, the hunters went back 
for their families. There were about thirty persons in 
the party that left North Carolina for Kentucky. Boone 
was the leader. He led them to a place that was suit- 
able for a settlement and halted. There they built 
houses and a fort to protect themselves from the In- 
dians. This place they called Boonesboro. Soon other 
settlers came, and the town grew to be quite large. 

One day Boone's daughter and two other girls were 
out in a canoe near the town. Suddenly some Indians 
came, swam out in the w r ater to the boat, and seized the 
girls. They started with them to a distant village. 


As they went along through the woods, one of the 
girls broke off twigs and dropped them to let Boone 
know which way they were going. An Indian saw her 
doing this, and came to her with his tomahawk raised. 
He told her that he would kill her if she did it again. 
Then she secretly tore off pieces of dress and dropped 
them along the way. 

Boone and others quickly followed the Indians. They 
could follow very well by the bits of dress. In a short 
while they came up close to the red men. It was at 
night, and they were sitting around a fire. Boone and 
his men crept up and fired at the Indians. The redskins 
fled, leaving the girls and two dead Indians behind. 
Then the girls were carried back to their homes, which 
they were glad to see once more. 

At another time Boone was out in the woods alone. 
The Indians came suddenly upon him and took him pris- 
oner. They liked him because he was such a good 
marksman. They adopted him as one of their tribe, 
and made him paint his face and wear feathers. Boone 
seemed to be satisfied, but all the time he was looking 
for a good chance to get away. 

Soon he had a chance and went back home. The In- 
dians liked him so much that they could not give him 
up. So they began to search for him. After a time 


they found him in a tobacco barn, working on his to- 
bacco. They pointed their guns at him and told him to 

"Now, man of the long shot," said one of them, "we've 
got you. No more can you get away." 

"How are you?" said Boone pleasantly. "Have my 
red brothers come to see me? Wait a minute, and* I 
will give you some good tobacco." 

He gathered two or three large leaves in his hands, 
crushed them to powder, and dashed the fine tobacco 
dust into the eyes and mouths of the Indians. There 
was a great coughing and sneezing for some time, and 
while that was going on Boone made his escape. The 
Indians could not help from laughing at Boone's trick. 
They never got hold of him again. 

When more people came into Boonesboro to live, 
Boone got restless again. He did not want to live in a 
city. So he moved out toward the west; and as people 
followed, he went farther and farther into the wilder- 
ness. Finally he moved across the Mississippi river 
into Missouri. There he had "elbow room" enough to 
last a long time. 

When he died his body was brought to Frankfort, 
Kentucky, and buried. It is fitting that his grave 
should be in the capital of the State which he founded. 



Just before the Revolutionary War there was in the 
central part of the colony a large number of men called 
Regulators. They said that the people were taxed too 
much; that their liberties had been taken away from 
them, and that they ought to resist such unjust laws. 
So they organized, chose leaders, and prepared to regu- 
late, or put in good order, their own affairs. They de- 
clared that they would fight rather than be robbed any 
longer by the government. 

Governor Tryon was the king's ruler in North Caro- 
lina at the time. He heard of the action of the Regula- 
tors, but laughed at it. With an oath he said that he 
would teach them a lesson in good manners. 

" The villains," said he, " want a good thing without 
having to pay anything for it. How do they expect a 
good government without paying taxes?" 

Tryon sent all over the colony for men to come and 
help him. He got eleven hundred men who said they 
would help him whip the Regulators. These men were 
well armed and brave. Tryon led them against the 
Regulators. Newbern was at that time the capital of 
the colony. He had to make a long march to Alamance 

county, where the Regulators were. It took him about 


two weeks to make the trip. When he got to Alamance 
creek he found that the Regulators were not far off. 
While waiting there Herman Husbands, the leader of 
the Regulators, wrote him a letter. In it he asked 
Governor Tryon if he would lighten their burdens. 

"Curse your burdens," answered the governor. "You 
must lay down your arms, obey the laws of your king, 
and return to your homes." 

Next day he marched toward the camp of the Regu- 
lators and halted in half a mile of them. There he 
waited to see if they had any answer to make him. The 
Regulators marched up to within three hundred yards 
of the king's soldiers and halted. The governor sent to 
them a justice of the peace to warn them against blood- 
shed. But the Regulators answered with loud shouts 
of "fight." Tryon saw that they meant business; so he 
got his men in line and prepared for battle. 

While the two armies stood facing each other, Robert 
Thompson, a prisoner in Tryon's hands, tried to escape 
to the Regulators. Governor Tryon fired upon the poor 
fellow and killed him almost- instantly. That was in 
sight of the Regulators, who at once fired upon the sol- 
diers of the governor. Then the governor ordered his 
men to fire, but they did not obey the order. 

"Fire upon the rascals," repeated Tryon. "Are you 
afraid of them? Fire upon them or upon me." 


The order was then obeyed. The battle raged fiercely 
for half an hour. Tryon brought up his cannon and 
opened upon the Regulators. They could not stand 
grapeshot, and fled to the woods. From behind trees 
.they kept up the fight for two hours. Governor Tryon, 
at the head of his troops, charged into the woods and 
put them to flight. Many were left dead on the field. 
Tryon's loss was about seventy killed and wounded, 
while the Regulators lost over one hundred. 

This was the first resistance to British rule that was 
made in America. It was about five years before the 
beginning of the Revolution. 

After the battle Tryon spent some time in hunting 
down the Regulators that were engaged in the battle. 
Many were captured. Some were hanged and many 
were put into prison and kept there for a long time. 
Hundreds were forced to take an oath that they would 
never again take up arms against the British govern- 

Herman Husbands fled from the State. He went to 
Pennsylvania to live, and years afterwards was in the 
"Whiskey Rebellion" in that State. Governor Tryon, 
shortly after the battle, was appointed Governor of 
New York. He left in July, 1771, to begin his new 



In 1765 the Parliament of England made a law 
called the Stamp Act. This law required the people in 
America to buy stamps from England to use for all 
checks, notes, deeds, newspapers and the like. Every- 
body who used such things had to buy these stamps, 
because no business was allowed to be done without 
them. England wanted to raise money to carry on 
war, and thought this would be a good way to get it. 

But the people in America did not like to be taxed 
this way, as they had not been asked about the matter, 
and were not allowed to Tote on the question. No 
colony in America was allowed to have a legislator 
in Parliament. So the colonists said they would not 
buy the stamps. They would go along and do as they 
had been doing, and let the stamps alone. But Eng- 
land sent the stamps over and appointed men to sell 
them. Then the king had to appoint men to make the 
people buy them. 

This made the colonists angry. People in North 
Carolina said they would not use the stamps. They 
said they would quit business before they would use 
them. And they declared that no stamp seller should 


stay in the colony. When a British ship reached the 
Cape Fear with the stamps on board, the captain was 
told that the stamps were not wanted. He saw on the 
shore Colonels Hugh Waddell and John Ashe with a 
large number of men to keep him from unloading; so 
he sailed out and anchored near the mouth of the river 
to see what would happen. 

Shortly before that, James Houston had been ap- 
pointed stamp agent. As soon as it was known that he 
had been appointed, a large number of men called 
upon him and urged him to resign his position. He 
did this, and promised that he would have nothing to 
do with the stamps. 

Matters went on for some time without further 
trouble. After a while two merchant vessels from 
Philadelphia came in. When they landed, Colonel 
William Dry, the collector, found that the clearance 
papers had no stamps on them. He told Captain Lobb, 
of the British vessel, about it; and the captain seized 
both vessels for not using the stamps. 

This act made the people of Wilmington so angry 
that over five hundred men got their guns to drive the 
British vessels from the harbor. Hugh Waddell was 
at their head. First they went in search of Colonel 
Dry, and made him give up the papers that had no 


stamps upon them. Next they went to the house of 
Mr. Pennington, collector of the port. 

" We have come," said Colonel Waddell, " to demand 
that you give up your place as collector. We want no 
man in office who favors the buying of British stamps." 

Mr. Pennington made some excuses, but they did not 
satisfy the men around his house, and he was forced 
to resign. 

Next day Colonel Waddell led his regiment of 
patriots to Brunswick to arrest Captain Lobb. They 
were determined to rid the colony of everybody that 
had anything to do with the stamp selling. They be- 
lieved that their rights were being trampled upon, and 
they were terribly in earnest. 

Wh'en they reached Brunswick they found that 
Governor Tryon was there also. He had come for the 
purpose of helping Captain Lobb. He had all the guns 
in Fort Johnston spiked for fear that the patriots 
would seize the fort and turn the guns upon the British 

Cornelius Harnett carried a letter from John Ashe 
to Governor Tryon. The letter told the governor that 
the patriots were not after him, but had come for 
Captain Lobb. Governor Tryon received him kindly, 
but said that he would not give up the captain. 


" Then we shall come and take him/' said Harnett. 
" Governor, we have nothing against you; but we must 
have this man who has interfered with our business." 

Waddell and his men surrounded the house which 
the governor was in; but it was soon found out that 
Lobb had made his escape, and was then on board the 
British gunboat, Viper. But the British ships were 
without food. They sent a small boat to Wilmington 
to buy some. This boat was seized and not allowed to 
go back. So the British were entirely at the mercy of 
Colonel Waddell and his men, as they could get 
nothing to eat. 

Then Governor Tryon sent for Hugh Waddell and 
John Ashe. They came, and the governor asked them 
what they were contending for. 

" We want these merchant ships, which your agents 
have seized, turned loose," said Waddell. " The owners 
have committed no wrong, and we will not allow them 
to be punished! " 

"And," said Ashe, " this Stamp Act will be resisted 
to blood and death, and we want it repealed! " 

" I shall release the men that were arrested," said 
Tryon; "but the British government has the making 
or the unmaking of the Stamp Act." 

The men were turned loose, and Colonel Waddell's 


men went home, ready to resist any further attempts 
to sell stamps. 

There was now no stamp agent in the colony, nor 
could anybody be found to take the office. 

Thus it happened that no stamps were sold in North 
Carolina. Soon the British government thought that 
it was best not to try to force the Americans to buy 
stamps, and the law was repealed. 



When the British heard that the Americans would 
not buy the stamps that had been sent over, they be- 
came very angry about it. They said the Americans 
were stingy and rebellious, and that they should be 
made to obey the laws. But that did not help to sell 
the stamps. So they had to be sent back to England. 

As the Americans would not buy the stamps, the 
British repealed the Stamp Act and put a tax upon tea. 
They thought the Americans would pay the tea tax 
without question; for they supposed that the patriots 
liked tea so well that they would never quit drinking 
it, although it was taxed. They were mistaken in that, 

Soon after the law was made for taxing tea, the news 
reached North Carolina. There was a great deal of ex- 
citement in many places. At Edenton everybody be- 
came much excited, for that town was quite a tea 
market. The Americans did not like the idea of paying 
such taxes to England, because they were not allowed 
the right to vote on the laws that taxed them. They 
were not represented in the English Parliament, and 
the cry arose, "No taxation without representation." 


The people did not like the tax half so well as they 
did the tea. And so they declared that they would not 
pay the tax even if they had to quit drinking tea. That 
was a day of tea parties, too. Every one drank tea ; and 
often the people would meet at a neighbor's house and 
spend the evening in social talk, drinking tea and play- 
ing games. The tea party was a pleasant way of spend- 
ing an evening. 

At a tea party each guest made his own tea. The 
leaves of the tea plant were brought to the table, and 
at the same time a large vessel of boiling water was 
brought. Each guest put a certain number of leaves in 
a cup, poured the hot water over them, and placed the 
saucer on top of the cup to let the leaves steep for 
a while. Then the tea was ready for drinking. 

The tea party that was held in Edenton on October 
25, 1774, was quite different. No tea was drunk at that 
party. The guests did not go there to drink tea. But it 
was one of the most famous tea parties in North Caro- 
lina history. It same about in this way : Not long after 
the news of the tea tax reached Edenton the ladies of 
the town said that they would quit using tea. They 
appointed a meeting place to talk over the matter. 
Fifty-one of them met at the house of Mrs. Elizabeth 
King. As the town of Edenton had only five hundred 


inhabitants, it is evident that nearly all the ladies were 

Mrs. Penelope Barker was made chairman of the 
meeting. She made a talk, saying that she thought the 
ladies of Edenton ought not to use the hateful tea any 

"We must not use the tea," said Mrs. Barker, "as 
long as the tax is on ft. I, for one, will never use it 
again, unless the tax is removed." 

Then the speaking began. Nearly all of the ladies 
had patriotic speeches to make. They were indignant 
that England should dare to put a tax upon their fa- 
vorite drink; and they spoke their minds freely. 

"My tea cups," said Mrs. Valentine, "shall never hold 
any more of the vile stuff, unless England instantly 
removes the tax." 

" This tea drinking is all a habit, anyway," said Miss 
Isabella Johnston. "A drink made from the dried 
leaves of the raspberry vine is far better than the hate- 
ful tea with the hateful tax upon it." 

Mrs. Hoskins, Mrs. King and others declared that 
anything would be better than giving up their liberties 
by drinking tea with a tax on it. 

After more talk of this kind, a committee was ap- 
pointed to write some resolutions on the subject. The 


committee brought in a resolution saying that the la- 
dies of Edenton would stop using tea, or wearing any 
goods made in England, until all taxes upon them had 
been repealed. All the ladies signed the resolution and' 
went home in good humor, feeling that they had done 
their duty as patriotic dames. 

And thus it happened that there was no more tea 
drinking in Edenton for a long time; and there were no 
more tea parties until after the Revolution was over. 



In May, 1775, a number of men met in Charlotte to 
hold a county convention. Abraham Alexander was 
made chairman. John Alexander and Ephraim Brevard 
were made secretaries. 

These men had met for the purpose of attending to 
some business which concerned their county. They 
knew that the colonies were expecting trouble with 
England. But they did not know that the war had al- 
ready begun. There were no telegraph wires in those 
days, and news traveled slowly. 

One day, while they were busy in the convention, a 
man on horseback rode into Charlotte as fast as he 
could come. The place was then a village. Everybody 
ran out into the street to see what was the matter. The 
man was from Massachusetts, and he brought the news 
of the battle of Lexington. That was the nineteenth 
of May, 1775, one month after the battle was fought. 

This man went into the room where the convention 
was being held. He told them how the British had 
shot some Americans at Lexington. 

"The war has begun," said he. "Some of our men 
were shot down while standing on the lawn in Lexing- 


ton. The British then went on to Concord to destroy 
our powder and balls; but when they got there they 
found our men, and there was a fight." 

"How was that?" asked many excitedly. "Did the 
men of Massachusetts dare to fight with the British?" 

"Yes, indeed," said the man. "Our people came in 
from all over the country and shot at the British from 
behind fences and trees. The redcoats were glad 
enough to get away from there. Our men chased them 
back to Boston, and killed a number of them." 

"That ends British rule in America," said Brevard. 
"You will see that I am right." 

To the south hurried the messenger to let others 
know of what had taken place. The convention broke 
up, for the news had created intense excitement. The 
battle was on everybody's mind. It was talked about 
on the streets and in the homes. 

That evening when the convention met there was 
still much excitement. Men were whispering to each 
other. Some were writing rapidly, and all were talk- 
ing. Then one member arose and made a motion that a 
committee be appointed to consider what should be 
done about the war that had begun. 

"This is the time when all Americans should stand 
together," said he. "If Massachusetts has been at- 


tacked, that means a blow at North Carolina. I, for 
one, am in favor of sending help to our brethren." 

The committee was appointed and drew up resolu- 
tions. Ephraim Brevard wrote the resolutions, and 
they were signed by every member of the convention. 
That was on the 20th of May, the day after they had 
heard about the battle of Lexington. In these resolu- 
tions North Carolina was declared to be free, and the 
men who signed them pledged themselves to stand by 
the resolutions. 

The meeting then adjourned and the men went home. 
Their neighbors did not know what to think about the 
step which had been taken. Many were afraid that 
England would send soldiers there and hang all of the 
men who had signed the paper. Eleven days later 
they met in Charlotte again. This time they organized 
a government for the county of Mecklenburg, which, 
according to their previous resolution, was now inde- 
pendent of England. 

"The other day we declared our independence of 
England," said Brevard. "Now we must set up a gov- 
ernment of our own. Governor Martin, the king's rep- 
resentative, has fled from the colony. We must take 
charge of our own affairs and run them as it shall suit 


Without further words they adopted rules for the 
government of the county. This was the first act in 
America that meant separation from England. At all 
other places people thought that the colonies would get 
what they were fighting for and still continue to belong 
to the mother country. But in North Carolina they de- 
clared for entire freedom. 

These resolutions were copied and read all over the 
country. They helped to raise the courage of the Ameri- 
cans. Soon the British tried to come into North Caro- 
lina, but they could not make a landing at Wilmington, 
and had to go on to some other place. 



After the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence 
no further action was taken for nearly a year. Patriots 
all over the colony were talking about the Declaration, 
and saying the colony ought to take other steps; but no 
one did anything to get the colony to act. 

Finally Colonel Samuel Johnston, about the first of 
the year 1776, called a congress to meet at Halifax in 
April. This meeting took place on the fourth of that 
month. Colonel Johnston was elected chairman. The 
members talked about declaring the colony free. Cor- 
nelius Harnett, of Wilmington, was particularly bold 
in what he said. He urged the other members to take a 
stand for freedom from England. 

"England has passed bad laws," said he, "and we are 
no longer obliged to obey them. I give my vote for 
liberty. Let others do what they may, I am for inde- 

"Can we afford to take such a step when the British 
are at our doors?" asked a member. "You all know 
that a British fleet and army are now at the mouth of 
the Cape Fear, ready to land and destroy our property." 

"That is why we should speak for independence," 
answered Harnett. "Let us show these tyrants that we 


are not afraid of tnem. Let us pass a declaration of in- 
dependence, and then go to the Cape Fear and prevent 
their landing. We can drive them from our shores." 

Nearly all the members agreed with Harnett. A 
committee was named to write some resolutions. Har- 
nett was made chairman of the committee. He wrote 
the resolutions and read them to the congress on the 
12th of April. These resolutions declared that the 
colony ought to be free. They also instructed the dele- 
gates at Philadelphia to vote for the independence of 
all the colonies. 

As soon as Harnett had finished reading, the mem- 
bers began to applaud, and cries for Harnett and inde- 
pendence were heard on the streets. A motion was 
made to adopt the resolutions, and a hundred seconds 
to it were made. With a shout the motion was carried. 

People on the streets soon found out what was being- 
done, and began to gather in crowds. The bells rang 
out for independence. The old town was ablaze with 

News of this heroic act was sent abroad. It raised 
the spirits of the Americans, and made them more anx- 
ious to meet the British. Before the year was out ten 
thousand North Carolina soldiers had been raised to 
drive the British from the colony. 


There was a beautiful lady living in Fayetteville in 
1776, who aided the British in that year against the 
patriots. This lady was Flora McDonald, a Scotch 
woman, who had corne to North Carolina in 1774. She 
was loved by the Scotch settlers on the Cape Fear, and 
had a great deal of influence over them. 

She was born in Scotland, and lived there until the 
year before the Revolution. When she was a young 
woman she saved the life of Prince Charles after he 
had been beaten in a great battle. That was in 1745, 
when Prince Charles was trying to take the throne of 
England from King George II. 

Flora McDonald believed that Prince Charles should 
be king instead of the coarse old king who was then on 
the throne. She got all of her kinsmen and friends to 
join Prince Charles in making war on the English. It 
was a short contest. At first the Scots were successful, 
but later the English sent a powerful army into Scot- 
land to finish the war. 

Prince Charles had a fine little army, but they were 
not a good match for the English. The two armies met 
at Culloden. The Scotch fought bravely, but the Eng- 


lish won the day. The battlefield was covered with the 
dead and wounded. 

Prince Charles was in the battle, and barely escaped 
being killed. He fled from the battlefield pursued by 
the English. He narrowly escaped capture, which 
would have meant death for him, and succeeded in get- 
ting to the woods and hiding himseli. 

After staying in the woods for some days, he came 
out and went to the house of Flora McDonald. He was 
hungry and penniless. He was received with kindness 
and told that he still had friends, and was taken and 
cared for. But it was unsafe for him to remain in Scot- 
land. The English soldiers were looking for him every- 
where. It was expected that they would come and 
search the house at any time. So he had to get away. 
How to escape was the hard thing to decide upon. He 
would be recognized as soon as seen, and then his head 
would be cut off. 

His friends began to think of plans to get him to a 
place of safety. It was Flora McDonald who thought 
of the plan that succeeded. She pretended to be going 
to a little island on the coast of Scotland. Prince 
Charles was disguised as a lady's waiting maid, and 
went along with the fair lady. They passed through 
crowds of people, and even soldiers, but no one knew 


the Prince in his strange dress. Once they were 
stopped, but each of them was sensible enough to 
answer all questions with satisfaction. After some 
time they reached the island, and soon Prince Charlea 
found his way to the continent of Europe, where he 
found other friends. 

Flora McDonald lived in Scotland for thirty years 
after that time. She watched the fortunes of Prince 
Charles, hoping one day to see him king; but when he 
died all hope of that was lost. She came to America 
and made her home among the Highlanders on the 
Cape Fear. 

In 1775 news^reached Fayetteville that war between 
England and the colonies was certain. In May of that 
year it was known that the war had begun in Massa- 
chusetts. It soon became known, also, that the patriots 
at Mecklenburg had declared their independence. 
Flora McDonald heard all of these things, and was 
much opposed to the Americans. She was a strong 
friend of England now. 

"I fought England to put 'Bonnie Charles' upon the 
throne, yet I cannot aid the Americans in this rebel- 
lion," she would say. Many Scotch settlers thought as 
she did. 

Late in the fall of 1775 news came to the Tories ar 


Fayetteville that Sir Henry Clinton, with a large fleet 
and army, was coming to North Carolina. He had sent 
word down to the Cape Fear that he hoped to meet a 
large number of the friends of the king at Wilmington 
early in February, 1776. He expected to take that 
place, and, with the help of the Tories, conquer North 
Carolina. The Americans who aided the British were 
called "Tories." Those who fought the British w r ere 
called "rebels" and "patriots'- and "Whigs." 

Flora McDonald was very active in getting the Tories 
together. She sent letters and messages over the set- 
tlement, urging the people to assemble in the name of 
King George. By the beginning of 1776 she had helped 
to get together about sixteen hundred Tories. They 
soon had a chance to fight, for Colonel Caswell and his 
Whigs had prepared to resist them. The battle 
was fought and the Tory army was completely de- 

Some time after the Revolution Flora McDonald re- 
turned to Scotland, where she spent her last days. Her 
life was a sad one, because she had engaged in two 
great undertakings, both of which were failures. She 
is known in history as one of the heroic women of hef 



At the beginning of the Revolution there were many 
Tories in North Carolina. These people believed that 
the Americans were doing wrong in fighting England. 
Many of them joined the British armies and fought 
against their countrymen. 

Flora McDonald and her husband, Alan McDonald, 
were very active in organizing the Tories. It was quite 
strange that these two were in favor of the English 
king. They had been active against him in Scotland, 
and had come to North Carolina to regain the money 
they had lost m fighting for Prince Charles. But when 
the time came for them to decide what to do they sided 
with King George. They got many of the Scotch set- 
tlers to join against the North Carolina patriots. So 
in January, 1776, there were more Tories in arms in 
North Carolina than patriots. Governor Martin had 
promised to raise ten thousand Tories to join the 
British when they should come to Wilmington in that 
year. It was a gloomy time for the patriots. 

There were a few North Carolina soldiers watching 
the Tories. Colonel Moore had a small force in the 
neighborhood of Fayetteville. Colonel Caswell was 


coming with another force from Newbern. Their com- 
bined strength did not amount to twelve hundred men, 
while the Tories had more than two thousand armed 
with broadswords. 

Caswell posted himself ut Moore's Creek Bridge, 
which was situated between the Tories and Wilming- 
ton, where the Tories wanted to go. Moore was at 
Rockfish, some miles below Fayetteville. 

General Donald McDonald, the Tory leader, marched 
up in sight of Moore's little army and demanded its sur- 
render. He was very haughty and overbearing. 

"I command you," said he, "in the name of King 
George, to lay down your arms and take the oath of 

Colonel Moore declined to do this. He said that he 
was engaged in a noble cause, and invited General Mc- 
Donald to join him in this cause. 

The Tory leader turned off and hurried on toward 
Wilmington. When he came into the neighborhood of 
Caswell's little army, he sent a messenger to demand 
the surrender of the patriots. Caswell replied that he 
did not come there to surrender, nor did he expect to 
surrender. Then McDonald got his men ready for bat- 
tle. But as General McDonald was sick and could not 


lead his men, the command was given to Colonel Don- 
ald McLeod. 

As the bridge had been taken away, the Tories had 
to cross the creek on two girders that had held the 
bridge. The patriots were on the other side ready to 
shoot down any men that attempted to cross. 

Soon they heard the Tories give three cheers for 
"King George and broadswords," then the long roll on 
the drum, and the call to arms by the bagpipes. It was 
still dark when the patriots heard the tramping of the 
Scots and knew that the battle was about to begin. 
McLeod and Campbell led the Tories, who appeared on 
the other side of the creek. 

"Who goes there?" asked the sentinel at the bridge. 

"A friend," answered McLeod. 

"A friend of whom?" 

"Of the king," was the reply. 

The sentinel did not answer. McLeod thought that 
he was one of his own men, and addressed him in 
Scotch. But as no answer came back he ordered his 
men to fire. They did so, and made a rush to get across 
the bridge. McLeod and Campbell got across, but the 
other Tories were shot down as fast as they crowded 
upon the logs. The two commanders and many of the 
men were killed. 


The patriots then charged across the creek, attacked 
the Tories and put them to flight, capturing eight hun- 
dred of them. Many wagons, horses and guns fell into 
the hands of the patriots. General McDonald and Alan 
McDonald were taken prisoners. The patriots lost only 
one man. 

It was a great victory. Not only did it stop the 
Tories from going to Wilmington, but it kept the 
British from making a landing there. Thus North 
Carolina was saved that year. 


Adventures of an American Spy. Pages 37-38, Book 

North Carolina History Stories 


When the British captured Charleston nearly all of 
South Carolina surrendered. Cornwallis, the British 
commander, then got ready to conquer North Carolina. 
He sent Colonel Tarleton ahead to destroy any force 
that he might meet. 

There were two small armies in North Carolina then. 
General Caswell had one in the eastern part of the 
State and General Rutherford one near Charlotte. 
These two patriots were watching to see what Corn- 
wallis would attempt to do. 

General Rutherford was raising all the men he could, 
for he thought that the British would soon be coming 
into North Carolina. He wanted to get together a force 
large enough to give Cornwallis some trouble when he 
did come. So he was sending here and there to get the 
North Carolina heroes to join him. Before he had got- 
ten together an army large enough to meet the British, 



he heard of the assembling of a large body of Tories at 
Ramseur's Mill, in the mountains. These were under 
Colonel John Moore, a noted Tory leader. About thir- 
teen hundred had already assembled, and the whole 
country seemed to be full of them. 

Rutherford knew that this body of men would do a 
great deal of harm unless they were beaten. He sent 
Colonel Francis Locke and Major David Wilson with 
four hundred men to keep a watch, and, if the situation 
was favorable, to attack them. These patriots set out 
at once, and on the 19th of June reached the neighbor- 
hood of Ramseur's Mill. 

That night the patriots held a council of war. All 
the officers in the little army met and talked over the 
matter. All were in favor of attacking the enemy next 

"It is true they have three men to our one," said 
Colonel Locke, "but one brave man in the cause of jus- 
tice and right is worth a dozen of these rascals." 

"Let us give the scamps a blow that they will not 
soon forget," said Major Wilson. "Let us march at mid- 
night and attack them at dawn. They shall not escape 

It was decided to make the attack at daylight next 
morning. So they got in place before daybreak, and 


waited for the time. Just as the day broke the patriots 
on horseback charged up the hill toward the Tory camp. 
The Tories fled at the first attack, but soon recovered 
from their fear and began to return the fire. The Tory- 
fire was too hot for the horsemen; so they ran back 
down the hill. The Tories began to pursue them. But 
the infantry came up just then and fired rapidly upon 
the Tories. Many of them fell, and they had to retreat 
up the hill. With a shout the patriots followed. 

The Tories got into a strong place on top of the hill, 
and the patriots could not drive them out. Colonel 
Locke began to retreat down the hill with his men. 
Just then Colonel Hardin, with another body of pa- 
triots, came upon the field and opened fire upon the 
Tories. They in turn ran back up the hill, followed by 
Locke and Hardin. Their position was stormed, and 
the Tories fled to a position on the other side of the 
hill. Then they sent in a flag of truce. The request 
was that there should be no more fighting until the 
dead could be buried and the wounded attended to. 
Colonel Locke refused this request. 

"Tell Colonel Moore," said he, "that I give him ten 
minutes in which to surrender. If at the end of that 
time he does not, then I march upon him." 

When the minutes were out the patriots made a 


charge upon the Tories. They fled, leaving their dead 
and wounded behind. The field was covered with them. 
. This was a great victory for the patriots. It was one 
of the most brilliant affairs in the whole war. The 
four hundred North Carolina soldiers had met and de- 
feated a force more than three times their number. 
This victory raised the hopes of the Americans; and the 
Tories began to creep back to their homes and firesides. 
About the same time Colonel Bryan, another Tory, 
was raising men for the British army on the Yadkin 
river. General Rutherford heard of this and went 
against him. Bryan had heard of Moore's fate at Ram- 
seur's Mill. So he did not wait to see Rutherford. He 
got out of the country as quickly as he could. 



Cornwallis finished the conquest of South Carolina in 
the summer of 1780. He was determined to conquer 
North Carolina, too. Nothing, he thought, would be 
able to stop him. 

It was in September that his army began to move 
northward. There was no American army to oppose 
him. Gates had been beaten a short time before at 
Camden. But there was a small force of North Caro- 
lina troops, under Colonel W. R. Davie, watching the 
British army. This little band was made up of about 
one hundred and fifty men on horseback. 

They were very active men, and gave the British a 
great deal of trouble. Sometimes they would gallop 
down upon a British foraging party, charge upon them 
with their sabres, and be gone before the British could 
recover from their surprise. At other times they would 
appear in front of the line of march and make such a 
noise that Cornwallis would order a halt, thinking that 
an army was about to attack him. Again, they would 
gallop around to the rear of the enemy, put spurs to 
their horses, and charge right into the British lines, 
causing a big stir and bustle, and be off before the 


enemy could do anything. In this way Colonel Davie 
and his dragoons worried the British a great deal. They 
had made up their minds to drive Cornwallis out of 
North Carolina. 

It was about the last of September that the British 
came to Charlotte. Davie had reached there first, and 
resolved to give them a hot reception, and show them 
how North Carolinians received visitors when they 
came unbidden. For that purpose he stationed his little 
band so that they could receive the British as they 
came up the street. 

Charlotte was then a town of about twenty families. 
It had two streets crossing each other at right angles. 
The courthouse was near the crossing of these streets. 
Davie put one division of his soldiers near the court- 
house behind a stone wall. He placed two other divis- 
ions a little farther down the street, up which the 
British were expected to come. With these arrange- 
ments made they awaited the coming of the redcoats. 

They did not have very long to wait, for soon the 
British came charging up the road, expecting to see the 
Americans scatter and run like rabbits before them. 
But they were mistaken. The North Carolinians did 
not fire until the British were in good range. At the 
first volley many British fell from their horses. The 


others continued to advance, but another withering fire 
came from the Americans. 

Again Cornwallis ordered his men to charge and 
drive the Americans from behind the stone wall. They 
came in a headlong rush, but Davie and his men were 
ready for them. The volleys rang out, once, twice, 
thrice, and the. British fled, leaving the road covered 
with dead and wounded. The third attack shared the 
same fate, and it seemed that Davie's little band was a 
good match for the whole British army. 

The British were determined to capture this Hor- 
nets' Nest; so Cornwallis sent some men to attack the 
North Carolinians on the side. Davie saw what they 
were up to. He thought that it was a good time for the 
hornets to leave their nest, as it was beginning to be a 
little warm for them. They left Charlotte to the British 
and retreated toward Salisbury. 

Cornwallis sent a detachment of cavalry to catch 
Davie and his brave little army. They galloped up the 
road after the Americans; but when they came in reach 
Davie and his men were ready for them again. They 
fired upon the British and put them all to flight. Then 
Davie and his men rode on to Salisbury. 

Several days after this Cornwallis heard that Colonel 
Ferguson, one of his bravest Qtticers ? ka4 been Defeated 


and slain by an army of mountaineers at King's Moun- 
tain. This was a great blow to the British general. He 
concluded that there were too many hornets' nests in 
North Carolina, and that it was not a very good time 
to go farther north. He retreated into South Carolina 
to wait until cooler times should come. 



While Cornwallis was in Charlotte he needed pro- 
visions for his army. There was no bread and meat in 
the town. Colonel Davie had taken good pains not to 
leave any there for the British. Cornwallis had heard 
that there was a considerable quantity of provisions on 
Mr. Mclntyre's farm, about seven miles from Charlotte. 
One morning in October, 1780, he sent four hundred 
men with wagons to capture these provisions and bring 
them to camp. This large number of men was sent be- 
cause he was afraid that Colonel Davie with his dra- 
goons might be near. Besides, he wanted to catch all 
the chickens, turkeys, pigs and cows that might be seen. 
They started early in the morning so that they could 
load up and get back the same day. They took with 
them a pack of hounds to catch the poultry and the pigs. 
As they went they shouted for King George. People 
living along the road saw and heard them, but kept at 
their work. 

Presently the soldiers came to a farm where a boy 
was ploughing in the field some distance from the road. 
As they were passing they gave a shout for "King 
George and merry England." The boy stopped and 


looked at them a moment; then he unhitched his horse 
from the plough, leaped upon his back, and rode rapidly 
across the field to the woods. The British jelled at him 
to stop, but he kept going. Soon he reached the woods, 
took a by-path, galloped with all his might to the road, 
and came out ahead of the British column. He put 
spurs to his horse and rode rapidly up the road toward 
Mclntyre'Sj for he knew the British were going there. 
As he went he spread the news that the British were 
coming. At every house he shouted the alarm. 

When he reached Mclntyre's it was yet early in the 
day. Quickly he told the news and dashed up the road 
to tell the minute men the enemy was coming. Mr. 
Mclntyre and his family got away as quickly as possi 
ble, but they could not carry anything with them ex- 
cept their guns. They ran to the woods, and had just 
hidden themselves when the British came in sight. 

In the meantime the boy had gone on spreading the 
news. The patriots began to join Mr. Mclntyre in the 
woods near the farm. Colonel George Graham with 
twelve dragoons came and halted some distance from 
the house. He could see what was going on at the farm. 
The British had taken possession of the place. They 
were chasing the chickens and the turkeys over the lot. 
Some were killing the pigs and the cows. Others were 


out in the field gathering fruit and vegetables. The 
wagons were being filled with the provisions. Every 
one was hurrying to and fro. 

Some of the British ran out into a lot where a num- 
ber of beehives were. One soldier knocked one of the 
hives over. Then, in the scuffle to get away, two or 
three hives were overturned. The bees came out in 
swarms and attacked the redcoats. There was a great 
scampering of the soldiers. They did not know how to 
fight bees, so they ran with all their might to get out 
of the way. The bees had won a great victory. 

Out in the woods Graham, Mclntyre and others were 
watching the British. They could not help from laugh- 
ing when the soldiers got among the bees. They did 
not feel that they were strong enough to attack the red- 
coats, but decided to give them some trouble when they 
started back to Charlotte. They crept up as near as 
they could and noticed what was being done at the 
house. But Mr. Mclntyre became so anxious about his 
house and property that he could not control himself. 
He wanted to drive away the enemy from his home. 

"Boys," said he, "I can't stand this any longer. See 
how they are destroying my things. I pick the captain. 
Every one choose his man and shoot to kill." With that 
he pointed his rifle at the British captain, standing in 


the porch, and pulled the trigger. Each of the others 
picked out a man and did the same. The captain, with 
nine soldiers and two horses, fell dead at the first fire. 
The fire was repeated and others fell. There was at 
once a great uproar among the British. The trumpets 
sounded and the men came running from the fields. 
By the time they had formed in line the patriots had 
changed their position and were pouring in a deadly 
fire from another direction. Men and horses were shot 
down by the score. The British ran here and there to 
no purpose. They were panic-stricken. 

"Set the dogs on the rascals!" shouted some of the 
redcoats. The dogs ran to the woods, but soon returned 
whining and howling. One had been killed and others 
wounded. Then the soldiers charged into the woods, 
but they could not find the patriots. The Americans 
changed their position every time they fired. The 
British were being shot down, but could not return the 
fire with any effect. 

There was great hurrying to get away from the farm. 
The loaded wagons rattled down the road, with the 
soldiers straggling after them. The horses were killed 
and the wagons blocked the road until there was hope- 
less confusion. For nearly seven miles the British ran 
with all their might, and the patriots kept shooting 


them down. Other country people, hearing what was 
going on, seized their guns and joined the patriots. The 
British were chased to Charlotte, which they reached 
after having lost many men and horses. They said that 
every bush on the road concealed a rebel. 

Thus it was that Cornwallis's men got into another 
hornets' nest. They left North Carolina soon after that 
and returned to South Carolina. 



Cornwallis wished to get supplies for his army and 
to rouse the Tories. For that purpose he sent Colonel 
Patrick Ferguson with eleven hundred and fifty men to 
western North Carolina. This officer was one of the 
bravest and most skillful in the British army. He went 
to the foot of the Blue Ridge, and sent word to Colonel 
Isaac Shelby that he was coming to destroy the settle- 
ments and kill all the people, unless they joine.d the 

Colonel Shelby received the message, but it had a 
different effect from the one Ferguson desired. There 
were many other patriots in the settlements along the 
French Broad and the Holston like Colonel Shelby. 
They were anxious for a chance to meet the British on 
the battlefield. Nothing could please them more than 
to have Ferguson attempt to carry out his threat. They 
sent him an urgent invitation to come on. 

These hardy mountain settlers were good fighters. 
They had fought the Indians many times, and were 
skillful in the use of arms. Besides, they were excellent 
riders. They loved freedom, and were ready to shed 
their blood for it. When they heard that the British 


were coming, word was sent from settlement to settle- 
ment to get weapons in order and to assemble at Syca- 
more Shoals on the 25th of September. Colonel Camp- 
bell, a Virginia patriot, was also informed, and he came 
with four hundred men from the Old Dominion. 

At the appointed time there were more than a thou- 
sand mounted men at the place of meeting. Colonel 
Campbell was chosen as leader. Colonels Shelby, 
Sevier, McDowell and Williams were to be advisory 
commanders. Parson Doak preached a parting ser- 
mon, telling them to go forth and smite the enemy 
"with the sword of the Lord and of Gideon." 

Over the mountains they went in a gallop. They 
were afraid that Ferguson's heart would fail him, and 
that he would turn back. So they galloped by night 
and by day. On through mountain defiles and gaps 
they hurried, anxious to meet the proud enemy who had 
threatened to burn their homes. As they hurried on, 
other riders joined them until there were eighteen hun- 
dred ^sturdy patriots hastening to meet the enemy. 

Ferguson heard of what was coming. He was afraid 
to meet these rough riders from the Balsams and the 
Smokies. So he turned back and traveled east as fast 
as he could. At the same time he sent a flying messen- 


ger to South Carolina for help. He had raised a storm 
in the "Land of the Sky," and was now flying before it. 

Colonel Campbell thought that Ferguson would run. 
To prevent his escape, nine hundred and ten of the fast- 
est and boldest riders were selected and sent on in rapid 
pursuit. They pushed on and overtook the enemy at 
King's Mountain. 

Ferguson had halted on top of the mountain and for- 
tified his position. He boasted that "all the rebels in 
hell" could not take him. He found out that the rebels 
in Western North Carolina could. Soon after he halted, 
the mountaineers came in sight of the British. They 
dismounted, tied their horses, formed into columns and 
began to advance up the mountain side. They were 
armed with rifles, sabres and tomahawks. They were 
Indian fighters and knew how to dodge bullets. 

When the British cavalry charged down the hill upon 
them, they dodged behind trees and shot the riders. 
Three times the British rushed upon them, but each 
time the deadly fire of the rough riders rang out, and 
many of the enemy fell to rise no more. At last Fergu- 
son himself, leading the last charge, was pierced with 
seven bullets and fell dead. All the British were either 
killed or captured. 

After the battle the officers of the mountaineers held 


a council of war. They decided that nine of the cap- 
tured Tories were traitors to their country and deserved 
death. They were promptly hanged. Then these men 
gave their prisoners and spoils to the American authori- 
ties and set out for their homes. They had been away 
from home about one month, and had performed one of 
the most brilliant deeds of the whole Revolutionary 

Cornwallis heard of the event soon after he had got- 
ten into a hornets' nest at Charlotte. He at once re- 
treated to South Carolina, and gave up the conquest of 
North Carolina for that year. 



Nathaniel Greene was one of the best generals in the 
American army. He was General Washington's right- 
hand man. More than once he had done things for 
which Washington had praised, and Congress had 
thanked, him. 

When Gates was beaten in the battle of Camden it 
was thought that Greene was the man who should take 
his place. Washington believed that Greene would be 
able to employ the attention of Cornwallis better than 
any other general in the army. For that reason Gates 
was recalled and General Greene was sent to take com- 
mand of the army in North Carolina. 

He came to Hillsboro in the fall of 1780. The" army 
was in bad condition. The Americans had been so badly 
beaten at the battle of Camden they could not bear 
to hear even the name of Cornwallis. The army was 
small and without provisions. Greene hardly knew 
what to do, but he realized that it would not do to be 
idle. He divided his little army into two divisions. One 
of these he sent into the western part of South Caro- 
lina to attack Tarleton. This division was under Gen- 


eral Morgan. The other, under General Huger, re- 
mained in the neighborhood of Charlotte. 

General Greene himself was very active. He was 
traveling here and there trying to raise more troops 
and to get money and supplies. Sometimes he was 
alone, and at other times members of his staff went 
with him. One night he was riding along the road from 
Guilford courthouse to Salisbury, entirely alone. He 
had been trying to raise some money among the rich 
landowners of that part of North Carolina, but had 
failed everywhere. He was tired and discouraged. 
Presently he heard the sound of horses' hoofs in front 
coming towards him. He stopped and reined his horse 
to one side of the road and waited. The sounds came 
nearer. Soon he could tell from the sound of voices 
that they were not British soldiers, but citizens return- 
ing from Salisbury. 

When they came up he spoke to them. They halted 
and exchanged greetings. 

"Did you see any British soldiers at Salisbury?" 
asked General Greene. 

"Yes," said one of the men, "a company of cavalry 
came in while we were there. They were rejoicing over 
a great victory that Tarleton has gained over Morgan." 

yu jee' 


Greene knew that the men had not recognized him, 
and he did not want to say anything that would make 
him known to them. At the same time he was over- 
whelmed by the bad news. But he hid his feelings. 

"How is that?" asked Greene. "Have the two armies 
met in battle?" 

"Yes, indeed; and one division of Greene's army has 
been completely destroyed, and Cornwallis is after the 

This was a piece of bad news.' General Greene put 
spurs to his horse and galloped off, leaving the coun- 
trymen wondering who he was. He could not believe 
the report, for General Morgan would surely have sent 
a messenger. Still he was in a depressed state of mind, 

Soon he came to a large house by the roadside. He 
decided that he would stop and ask permission to stay 
all night. He dismounted and knocked at the door. A 
lady opened to him. 

" You see at your door, madam," said he, " General 
Greene, of the American army, homeless, penniless and 
almost friendless. Will you allow him to spend the 
night under your roof?" 

"General Greene is welcome to this house and all that 
is in it," said the lady. 


She then called a servant, who took the general's 
horse to the stables. 

"Come in, General Greene, and I will have tea pre- 
pared for you. I am Mrs. Steele, and my neighbors will 
tell you whether I am a Tory or a patriot." 

In a little while a bountiful supper was ready, and 
while Greene was eating, Mrs. Steele took out from a 
safe a bag of gold and gave it to him. 

"This is the savings of many years/' she said, "and I 
know of no better use to which to put it than for the 
defense of my country. Take it, and may it be service- 
able to you. I only wish it were more." 

General Greene thanked her, and said that it would 
be a most valuable means of getting supplies for his 
army. Just then some one knocked loudly at the door. 
Mrs. Steele opened the door and found a man, dressed 
in the ragged uniform of an American soldier, standing 
there. lie asked if General Greene was there. 

"I was told that he might be here. I have important 
dispatches from General Morgan." 

By that time Greene was at the door, and the man 
with a salute delivered the papers into his hands. 

"I am a messenger from General Morgan," he con- 
tinued, "who told me to inform you that he had met 


Colonel Tarleton at the Cowpens and had killed or cap- 
tured almost his entire force." 

"Thank God for that!" said General Greene, as he 
opened the dispatches. He found that Morgan had 
gained a most brilliant victory, and was then on his way 
to join the main army under Huger. 

Next morning Greene and the messenger bade fare- 
well to Mrs. Steele, and hastened to join the army on 
the Yadkin. 



As soon as Cornwallis heard that General Morgan 
had beaten Tarleton at the Cowpens, he set out from 
South Carolina with his whole army to cut off Morgan's 
retreat. He knew that the American general would try 
to get back to North Carolina to rejoin General Greene. 
He thought that he could cut him off at the Catawba 
river and capture his army and set free the prisoners. 

He marched as rapidly as he could. Hardly any time 
was given the men to rest. Day and night he hurried 
along. He must get to the fords of the Catawba before 
Morgan. But Morgan was no idler. Knowing that 
Cornwallis would try to cut him off, he made up his 
mind to reach the Catawba before Cornwallis. He 
marched as rapidly as he could. His men rested little 
either by day or by night. He must get to the river be- 
fore Cornwallis. 

It was a great race. Morgan had the start, and he 
kept his advantage. He reached the river and passed 
over before Cornwallis arrived. The river rose during 
the night, and Cornwallis could not get over for two 
days. During that time Morgan rested and sent his 
prisoners to a place of safety. 


General Greene placed General Davidson at Mc- 
Cowan's ford with three hundred North Carolina sol- 
diers to prevent the British from crossing. He and 
Morgan led the army away. Cornwallis with the whole 
British army was on the other side of the river, waiting 
for the water to fall. 

General Davidson was a brave North Carolina sol- 
dier. He had given the British a great deal of trouble 
the year before, when they attempted to conquer North 
Carolina. He was ever on the watch for a chance to 
give the British a blow, and he usually hit hard. 

On the morning of February 1, 1781, Cornwallis be- 
gan to cross the river. Colonel Webster, with one 
division, crossed at Beattie's ford. Cornwallis himself 
led the other division. He came to McCowan's ford 
early in the morning while it was yet dark. On the 
other side of the river could be seen the fires of the 
North Carolinians. 

Cornwallis saw that he must fight his way across. 
"Who would have thought that the rebels would make 
a stand here?" he said to General O'Hara. 

"They mean business, too," said the other. 

General O'Hara was given the task of driving Gen- 
eral Davidson from the river. He ordered Colonel Hall 
to cross the river with a strong force. When this force 


was about half way across the stream, they were fired 
upon by the Americans. The current was very strong 
and the British soldiers were waist deep in the water. 
They stopped and would have gone back, but the offi- 
cers urged them on. General O'Hara spurred his horse 
into the river for the purpose of urging on his men; but 
before he reached the first line his horse stumbled and 
threw the General over into the water. He go-t out as 
best he could, but his ardor was somewhat dampened. 

Cornwallis also dashed in, but his horse was killed 
while he was crossing, and he found himself afoot. 

Several British soldiers, including Colonel Hall, were 
killed. Those that reached the other shore charged up 
the hill against the North Carolinians. 

While the British were crossing, General Davidson 
stood firm with his three hundred brave men. He di- 
rected the fire of his men with good effect. But when 
the British reached the shore he saw that it was useless 
to resist longer. So he gave the order to his men to 

"To the woods," said he, "and come together at Ter- 
rent's Tavern." 

As he was in the act of mounting his horse to follow 
his men, a British bullet put an end to his life. 

His death was a severe blow to Greene and the 


American cause. Davidson was one of the most active 
patriots in North Carolina. He did much to hold the 
patriots together in the dark days of the war. 

The scattered soldiers came together at Terrent's 
Tavern as they had been ordered. But as there was no 
leader they were in a helpless condition. Tarleton and 
his dragoons soon attacked them and put them to flight. 



It was in February, 1781. Cornwallis had coine into 
North Carolina for the purpose of destroying General 
Greene's army. He was eager for battle, and so were 
his men. 

Greene's army was not strong enough to meet the 
British in open battle. The men were so ragged and so 
poorly armed that Greene kept out of the way of Corn- 
wallis as best he could. But he stayed near the British 
army so that he might be able to stop any plundering. 

Often he would send a soldier, disguised as a coun- 
tryman, into the British camp to find out what the 
enemy was doing or was going to do. Such information 
was very useful to General Greene. He could tell at 
any time where the British army was, or where it would 
be next day, and in that way he kept out of the way of 

One day Greene sent a man named Jones into the 
British lines to find out something for him. Jones spent 
the day among the British soldiers, and found out every- 
thing that he wanted. That night when he started to 
leave, a sentinel ordered him to stop. He immediately 
broke into a run and soon reached a little patch of 


woods near the British camp. Soldiers were sent in 
pursuit of him. 

As the British entered the woods they saw Jones 
creeping along under the bushes. They fired upon him, 
but he did not stop. The British were gaining on him, 
and he thought he was lost. As his only hope lay in 
flight, he began to run again. He thought he might be 
able to escape in the darkness. 

While he was running his foot caught in a bramble 
and tripped him. He now felt sure he would be shot. 
But a bright idea came into his mind while he was lying 
on the ground. Near him was a large, hollow log. He 
crawled into it, thinking that the British would soon 
pass by in pursuit, and then he could come out and go 
his way. The soldiers came up near the log and stopped. 

"I am not going to run that rascal any longer," said 
one. "He is out of our reach by this time, anyway, and 
I'm tired." 

"So am I," said another. 

"Let us make a fire here and rest." 

All agreed to this. To Jones's horror they gathered 
brush to make the fire and piled it against the log. 
Then they set fire to "the brush. Soon the log began to 
burn, and Jones's hiding place became uncomfortable. 


What he should do he did not know. To come out 
would be death. To stay in would be the same. 

Just then the wind sent the smoke and flame into the 
hollow log. Jones could not stand it any longer. He 
began to scramble out backward. The British saw a 
stir in the flames, and soon a man with blackened face 
and half-burnt hair and clothes jumped out of the log. 

"It's old Nick himself!" shouted one of the soldiers, 
and then they all took to their heels. 

Jones did not stop to inquire what they were running 
for, but got away as fast as he could. It was well that 
he did; for the British soldiers soon recovered from 
their fear and came back to capture the spy. With 
torches they began to search the woods again. But it 
was too late; for Jones had gotten out of the woods 
and found a hiding place in the house of a patriot some 
distance away. 

The patriot had a daughter named Hannah. She 
took Jones up-stairs, put him in a barrel, and headed it 
up. Then she waited to see what would happen. All 
night the family waited and listened. Just at dawn 
some one knocked loudly at the door. The door was 
fiercely shaken, and somebody said in a harsh voice: 
"Open the door instantly, or we will break it down." 

Hannah opened the door as quickly as she could, and 


there were the British soldiers outside. She was not 
afraid of them, and asked what they wanted. 

"Where is that dog of an American spy?" asked the 
leader. "I know he is here, for we have tracked him to 
this place." 

"I do not keep up with American spies," said the girl. 
"I reckon you had better go about your business." 

"I am 'about my business,' and if you don't tell 
me where you have hidden him we'll tear up every- 
thing in this house. We are going to find him." 

The British began to search the house. After they 
had searched everything downstairs, they went up- 
stairs. There were several barrels in a room, in one of 
which was Jones. 

"Come out of that barrel," said the leader of the 
British, and he rolled one of the barrels downstairs. 
That was the one Jones was ir . The head burst out as 
it was going down, and the spy jumped up and seized a 

"Come on, my men!" he shouted. "We have them at 

The British thought there were other Americans 
around, and fled with all speed. Jones made his way as 
fast as he could to the army of General Greene, and the 
British soldiers went back to their army. 



After the battle of Cowpens, General Morgan re' 
treated to the Yadkin river and joined General Greene 
there. The two armies then marched northward, 
as Cornwallis was coming. Greene thought that he was 
not strong enough yet to risk a battle, and retreated 
toward Virginia. The cavalry, under Colonel Williams, 
remained behind to protect the infantry that went be- 

Lieutenant-Colonel Lee was the most active officer in 
the cavalry division. He was General Greene's most 
trusted man. Colonel Williams gave him very impor- 
tant duties to perform in this retreat. He had to guard 
the rear, and that brought him often into conflict with 
the British. 

In Colonel Lee's command was a bugler boy named 
Gillies. He was hardly more than fifteen years of age, 
but had volunteered to do service for the American 
cause. There was not an officer or man in Lee's com- 
mand that did not know Gillies. He was a general fa- 
vorite. Colonel Lee kept him near himself all the time. 
He was a trusted friend as well as a comrade in arms. 
Lee often sent him upon errands and always found that 


he did his duty. On this retreat Gillies was particularly 

One morning in February, 1781, the cavalry had made 
an early march, and had stopped about 9 o'clock near 
Guilford courthouse to cook breakfast. The fires had 
been made; the meat was broiling on the coals; the 
cornbread was in the ashes; the soldiers were lounging 
ground waiting for the food to cook. Just then the 
sound of hoofs was heard, and every man made ready 
to mount at the signal. Then a countryman was seen 
riding up the road in a great hurry and excitement. 
He was hailed and stopped. 

"Where's the general?" asked the countryman; "I 
have some news for him." 

He was conducted to Colonel Williams, who asked 
him what his errand was. 

"Lord Cornwall is is right behind you, general," he 
said. "I saw his army not half an hour ago coming up 
the road this way. They are not three miles away." 

Colonel Williams knew that Cornwallis was coming, 
but he did not know that he was so near. But as he 
could not doubt the honest farmer's word, he ordered 
Colonel Lee to send a small force down the road to see 
if the report was correct. Captain Armstrong with a 
few horsemen and the countryman went a mile in that 


direction, but saw nothing. Colonel Lee, Gillies and a 
few others followed and soon overtook them. They 
went on together for two miles, but did not see or hear 
the enemy. 

Lee was about to conclude that the countryman was 
mistaken. But the man protested that they were only 
a short distance farther on. Colonel Lee decided that 
he would return to breakfast. He told Captain Arm- 
strong to go on with the countryman until he came to 
the place where the British had been seen. 

Captain Armstrong selected the men that were to ac- 
company him, and was moving on when the country- 
man stopped and said that he could not go on unless he 
was furnished with a better horse. "For," said he, "if I 
should be captured it would go hard with me." Lee 
saw that the farmer was right. He told Gillies to give 
his horse to the countryman and to take the country- 
man's horse back to camp. The exchange was made 
and the two parties separated, one going on to meet the 
British and the other going back to breakfast. 

Instead of returning to camp, however, Lee led his 
dragoons off from the road and halted in the woods to 
see what might take place. The bugler boy rode on 
toward the camp. He rode slowly, for the country- 
man's horse was lame. Presently a rattle of musketry 


was heard, and then the noise of horses running. Lee 
concluded that Armstrong had found the enemy and 
was retreating. Sure enough, Armstrong and his com- 
pany, followed by some of Tarleton's dragoons, soon 
came in sight. The American horses were swifter than 
the British, and Lee was certain that the Americans 
could take care of themselves. But he was afraid for 
the safety of the bugler boy, who was mounted on the 
countryman's horse. So when the dragoons dashed by 
him in pursuit of Armstrong, Lee ordered his men to 
go in pursuit of the dragoons. He came up in time to 
see the British horsemen sabre Gillies and beat him to 
the ground. This angered Lee and his men. 

"See those cowards," said he, "murdering a defense- 
less boy. Soldiers, let not one of the villains escape." 

The British saw him coming, and turned to meet him. 
The Americans halted not, but bore down with all their 
might upon the enemy. Great was the shock, and most 
of the British were knocked from their horses and 
killed. Captain Miller and two or three of his men 
tried to escape, but Lee ordered Lieutenant Lewis to go 
in pursuit and give no quarter. Lewis soon returned 
with Miller as a prisoner. Lee ordered him to be shot 
for the murder of the bugler boy; but Miller denied that 


he had anything to do with it, and said that his men 
were drunk and did not know what they were doing. 

Lee went to where Gillies was lying. The poor boy 
was not dead, but life was fast going from him. 

"My poor boy/' said Lee, "you are badly hurt, but 
those cowardly rascals have already been punished." 

"Did their captain get away?" Gillies asked with 
great effort. "He was the one who struck me first with 
his sabre." 

That was enough. Lee went back and ordered the 
British captain to prepare for instant death. He begged 
for his life in vain. But just as those who were ap- 
pointed to execute him were leading him off, some one 
shouted that Tarleton's cavalry was coming. The 
Americans hurried on to camp and joined the main 
army. The British captain was turned over to Colonel 
Williams, who sent him on to a prison in Virginia. And 
so it happened that he was never punished for the kill- 
ing of the bugler boy. 

Gillies died in a few minutes after the advance of the 
British was seen, and his body was placed by the road- 
side. There is a monument to him on the Guilford bat- 
tle-ground near Greensboro. 




Ccrnwallis tried to catch Greene's army, but he did 
not succeed. General Greene kept going until he 
crossed the Dan river into Virginia. Then Cornwallis 
went to Hillsboro and encamped. 

From this place he sent word to the people of North 
Carolina that he had come as a friend, and that he ex- 
pected them to be true subjects of the king. As there 
was no American army in North Carolina to keep the 
Tories in check, they began to flock to the standard of 
the British general. 

Greene, who was resting at Halifax, Virginia, heard 
of what was going on in North Carolina, and made up 
his mind that he would try to put a stop to it. He sent 
Colonel Lee and General Pickens, with a small force, 
into North Carolina. He told them to keep a close 
watch on the Tories, and, if possible, keep them from 
joining the British. 

Soon after crossing the Dan river, these two officers 
learned that Colonel Tarlton, with his dragoons, was 
just ahead of them and was going toward Guilford 
courthouse to rouse the Tories in that neighborhood. 
Colonel Lee thought that it would be a good time to 


attack Tarleton and, if possible, drive him from North 
Carolina. With that in view they proceeded in the 
direction of the British camp. On the way they met a 
countryman, who told them that Tarleton and his dra- 
goons were about three miles ahead. 

"They have halted at the farm of a neighbor of mine," 
said the countryman. "They are much given to liquor 
and their horses are unsaddled." 

Lee saw that his opportunity was at hand. He hur- 
ried on in order to reach the place before the British 
should finish their dinner. When they arrived at the 
farm, however, all the British were gone except two, 
who were left behind to settle with the farmer. These 
two were captured. From them it was learned that 
Tarleton had gone on about six miles farther to encamp 
for the night. 

Lee then thought that it would be best for his men 
to pass through the country as British soldiers coming 
from Hillsboro to the aid of Colonel Tarleton. He in- 
formed all his officers and men of what he was doing, 
and told them to act the part of British soldiers. He 
gave the two prisoners into the hands of a sergeant, 
who was instructed to kill them instantly if they should 
try to betray the Americans. Thus having arranged 


matters, the little army marched on toward Tarleton's 

In a little while they met two well-mounted young 
countrymen. These young men rode up and asked to 
see the colonel. They were deceived. They thought 
that the Americans were British, and that the com- 
mander was Tarleton himself. They were led to Colonel 
Lee, whom they saluted with respect. 

"We have come from Colonel Pyle," said one of them, 
"who has four hundred brave North Carolinians ready 
to join your command to fight for the cause of the king. 
He wishes to know how he may unite his force with 

Lee saw that the countrymen had made a mistake in 
thinking that he was Tarleton. He decided to turn the 
matter to advantage. He told one of the men to return 
to Colonel Pyle and tell him to draw up his men along 
the roadside and await his coming. The other man re- 
mained with Lee. 

Colonel Pyle did as he was requested. Lee came up 
with his command and halted. Then he marched his 
dragoons along the line of Colonel Pyle's command. 
Lee was at the head of the line. When he came to where 
Colonel Pyle was he stopped, and that officer gave the 
military salute. Lee returned the salute. 


"Colonel Tarleton," said Pyle, addressing Colonel 
Lee by mistake, "you see before you four hundred as 
brave subjects of the king as are to be found anywhere. 
They have become tired of seeing their countrymen in 
arms against their sovereign. So they have resolved to 
join you in breaking down the rebellion." 

"Colonel Pyle," said Lee, "you are mistaken in the 
man and the meeting. Be easy and listen to me. I am 
Lieutenant-Colonel Lee." At this Pyle gave a start and 
partly drew his sword. 

"You must be easy," said Lee. "Your life is not 
worth a baubee if you make any movement at all. My 
men have orders to shoot you down if you do not com- 
ply with my orders." 

Just at that time a heavy firing was heard down the 
road. Some of Pyle's men had seen General Pickens's 
militia in the woods and fired upon them. The Ameri- 
cans returned the fire, and Lee's dragoons, thinking 
that they were discovered, began to cut down the men 
in their front. Pyle tried to lead his men against Lee, 
but the dragoons were too fast for him. In less than 
fifteen minutes Pyle himself was cut down and left for 
dead, while ninety of his command had been killed. 
The others scattered in every direction,, and succeeded 
in getting away, as they were not pursued. 


After this Lee hurried on to attack Tarleton. It was 
nearly sundown when he came within a mile of the 
British. lie wanted to make the attack at once, but it 
was thought best to wait until morning. So the Ameri- 
cans slept with their arms near them. About the mid- 
dle of the night Tarleton broke camp and hurried back 
to Hillsboro to rejoin Cornwallis. Lee and Pickens pur- 
sued him, but could not get near enough to give battle 
that night. 

So Colonel Pyle probably saved Tarleton from cap- 
ture. Lee was expecting to meet a British colonel, but 
met an American colonel instead. 


"He dashed down the rock at lighting speed into the river.' 
Page 32, Book V. 

North Carolina History Stories 


During the Revolutionary War there was an organi- 
zation in western North Carolina known as "Minute 
Men." It was made up of the patriots who could not 
leave their homes permanently to join the regular army, 
but were ready to fight at a minute's notice whenever 
the British came into North Carolina. 

These men lived among the mountains and loved 
their freedom. Some of them had rifles and swords, 
but most of them had only the fowling pieces they used 
on their hunting trips in the mountains. But they 
knew how to use these weapons with telling effect. 
They were thoroughly organized and ready to respond 
to the call to arms, no matter when it should come. 
They answered when they were called to fight Ferguson 
at King's Mountain and the Tories at Ramseur's Mill. 
At each place they answered with a powerful blow, 
which struck down the enemy. 



When Cornwallis came into North Carolina in Feb- 
ruary, 1781, word was quickly sent up to the hill coun 
try that an enemy was at their doors. This news pro- 
duced a stir in the mountain coves. Messengers were 
sent here and there. Lights shone from the mountains. 
The air was full of hurry and preparation. 

Soon the tramp of feet told that the minute men were 
assembling. Out from the coves and valleys they came 
to join together to drive the enemy from their doors. 
They traveled over the mountains looking for a chance 
to strike the British. When they reached Salem it was 
learned that Greene had retreated and was then in Vir- 
ginia. Cornwallis was at Hillsboro. But soon it was 
known that General Greene was going to return and 
give battle to Cornwallis. This news raised the spirits 
of the minute men. 

For some days they waited to see what would be 
done. Then a messenger from Greene came through 
the country telling the news everywhere: "General 
Greene has recrossed the Dan with a large army, and 
he expects every patriot to meet him at Guilford court- 
house early in March." It was then near the last of 
February. The minute men set out for the appointed 
place. They aroused the country as they went. Hun- 
dreds of men joined them as they proceeded, and when 


they reached Greene's camp the strength of his army 
was very much increased. 

General Greene now thought himself strong enough 
to meet Cornwallis in battle. He therefore prepared 
himself and waited for the British to come up. The 
North Carolina minute men were placed in front. They 
were ordered to fire upon the British and then fall back 
to the next line. 

Presently Cornwallis and his army came in sight. 
With colors flying and drums beating they marched up 
the road toward the minute men. It was a beautiful 
sight. The minute men had never seen anything like it 
before. They had fought Indians and had chased the 
bear in the mountains, but they had never seen war in 
such colors as this. But they stood their ground until 
the British were in good range. Then they fired with 
deadly effect, and retreated as they had been ordered to 
do. They ran from the field with much haste, and gave 
the appearance of a flight. They re-formed behind the 
other lines and joined in the battle later. 

When the. minute men fled the British shouted, think- 
ing that the battle was already won. They found that 
they were badly mistaken, for when they met th* regu- 
lar troops their forward march was checked. Tarleton 
with his dragoons was ordered to drive the Americana 


back, but he found Greene and Lee ready to pounce 
upon him. 

While the battle was in doubt, General Greene or- 
dered his men to retreat. Then it was that the minute 
men of the hills came in for some real service. Tarle- 
ton's dragoons began to pursue them. They turned 
round and poured in a deadly fire upon the dragoons 
and checked their advance. 

The minute men carried their bullets in their mouths 
for convenience. As quick as a flash they would fire 
and reload. Every time a rifle was fired a British sol- 
dier fell from his horse or a horse tumbled in his tracks. 
Tarleton thought that he had better wait until the 
minute men had left the field before he went any far- 
ther. So he halted and they went on. 

In this battle the British lost about six hundred men 
and the Americans about four hundred. The men from 
the mountains did good service, as did the other North 
Carolina soldiers. The minute men remained in 
Greene's army until Cornwallis was driven from North 
Carolina. Then they went back to their homes to raise 
their crops and to look after their stock. 



After the battle of Guilford courthouse, Cornwallis 
Sent word home that he had gained a great victory. He 
also sent out notices to the people that he had finished 
the conquest of North Carolina, and would expect all of 
them to aid him in establishing peace. He was sur- 
prised that they did not come to his camp to congratu- 
late him upon his victory. He began to feel a little 
uneasy; and presently he began to think that he had 
won no victory at all. 

In a day or two he heard that General Greene was 
getting ready to attack him. Greene was not whipped 
at all, but had made a strong camp on Troublesome 
creek. He was hoping that Cornwallis would attack 
him there, but the British general had another matter 
to attend to. He was anxious to get away from the 
neighborhood of Greene and the North Carolina min- 
ute men. With this object in view he ordered his army 
to begin to move towards Wilmington. This was three 
days after his "great victory" at Guilford courthouse. 

No sooner had the British army broken camp than 
the Americans began to close in upon them. Lee's 
legion hung on the rear, and again and again made at- 


tacks upon the British. His horsemen would gallop up 
to the rear line of the enemy, discharge their rifles, 
and dash away before Tarleton could organize a pur- 
suit. Colonel William Washington was also with 
Greene's army, and his men helped in these attacks. 
They were mounted on large, blooded horses, while 
Tarleton's men had only small ponies. The British 
dragoon was therefore no match for the American. 

One day it was learned that the British army would 
soon pass along a road that had a high fence on each 
side. Colonel Washington said to Lee that it would be 
an excellent place to destroy Tarleton's cavalry. 

"If we attack them there, Tarleton will have to pro- 
tect the rear, and we can ride him down," said Wash- 

This was an excellent plan. When the British dra- 
goons had gotten well into the lane, Lee sounded the 
signal for attack, and the big horses of the Americans 
ran like the wind down the lane toward the British. 
Tarleton saw them coming, and turned around to receive 
the attack. His little horses could not stand the shock. 
Every one that the Americans reached was knocked 
down and rolled in the mud. The riders were killed 
and the ponies ridden over. Tarleton himself came near 
going down in the charge. He saved himself by putting 


spurs to his pony at the first shock and galloping out of 
range. Just then a British cannon was rolled into posi- 
tion and began to fire straight down the lane. Lee gave 
the signal for retreat, and drew off without losing a 
single man or horse. 

Cornwallis hurried on to Cross creek, which was set- 
tled by Scotch Highlanders who were friendly to the 
British cause. There he hoped to get out of the way of 
the Americans and have time for rest. Before he 
could reach that settlement Deep river had to be 
crossed, and there was no ford. So he had to build a 
bridge. Greene had halted his army on account of the 
scarcity of provisions, but had sent Lee and his dra- 
goons to watch the British and annoy them in every 
possible way. Lee delayed Cornwallis as much as he 
could. He kept dashing up with a great deal of noise 
to where the carpenters were at work upon the bridge, 
scaring and confusing them. Then he was off almost in 
a minute's time. 

One night, when the bridge was nearly finished, and 
the British army was expecting to march over it the 
next morning, Lee thought he would destroy it. If he 
could do so, it would cause Cornwallis to have to wait 
until it could be rebuilt; and then Greene would be 
there to attack him, and the whole British army might 


be captured. He chose two hundred men from his 
legion to do this work. At their head he rode ten miles 
around the British army and came into the neighbor- 
hood of the bridge late at night. He was greatly dis- 
appointed to find that Cornwallis had placed a guard at 
the bridge too large for him to think of attacking. With 
regret he had to retreat to his former position. 

Next day the whole British army crossed over and 
came into the settlement of the Highlanders. Lee did 
not think it wise to follow them farther. So he waited 
until General Greene arrived. It was then decided to 
let Cornwallis alone and drive the British out of South 

Cornwallis went to Wilmington. He remained there 
for some time. Then he went north into Virginia, and 
soon reached Yorktown. 



After Cornwallis had worn himself out whipping 
General Greene at Guilford courthouse, he retreated to 
Wilmington. He was afraid to meet the Americans in 
another battle. So he shut himself up in that city, and 
would not come out again. 

General Greene decided to march into South Caro- 
lina and attack the British there. Before he went he 
serit Colonel Harry Lee with his horsemen to South 
Carolina to let the people know that he was coming. 
Lee was also to find General Marion, the "Swamp Fox," 
as he was called, and tell him to collect as many men as 
possible by the time Greene should arrive. 

"Light Horse Harry," as Colonel Lee was called, was 
the very man to do this work. With his dragoons he 
set out from Greensboro on his long march through the 
forests of North Carolina. He was a brave man, and 
did not mind the dangers that surrounded him. His 
horseme'n also were brave. They scoured the country 
as they passed through, looking for British and Tories. 
There were no British to be found; and if there were 
any Tories around they were afraid to let it be known 
when Lee's men were near. 


One night something happened which they remem- 
bered for a long time afterwards. They had halted and 
made their camp in a large forest. As usual, Colonel 
Lee had placed pickets all around his camp to give the 
alarm if an enemy should attack. Then they all retired 
for the night and slept soundly after a long day's march. 
Late at night the soldiers on guard on the south side of 
the camp heard a great tramping of feet in the brush 
just in front of them. They thought that the British 
were making an attack upon them, and fired in that 
direction. Then they heard a galloping through the 
forest as if the enemy was running. 

One of the men ran as fast as he could to Colonel 
Lee's tent. The colonel was already up, for he had 
heard the firing. 

"What's the matter?" asked Lee. "Is the enemy 
about to attack us?" 

"Yes, sir," said the soldier saluting, "a squadron of 
the enemy attacked us in front a short while ago, but 
we beat them off with loss. They are now in full re- 

Colonel Lee ordered the men to be aroused from sleep 
and to prepare for battle. He expected. the enemy to 
return. He exhorted his men to stand firm and to strike 
hard when the British appeared. Just then the pickets 


on the east side began to fire their guns. Lee ordered 
his men to face in that direction, expecting the enemy 
to attack in force. But the firing ceased. Soon a sol 
dier came running into camp from the east side. 

"Where is the enemy?" asked Lee. 

"I have to report, sir," said the man, "that the enemy 
attacked us vigorously, but the good aim of our men has 
driven them off." 

"Let every man be ready to charge at a moment's no- 
tice," said Lee. 

Before he finished speaking a sharp firing was heard 
on the north side of the camp. Lee felt sure the attack 
was coming now, but it did not come. He did not know 
what to think, and the men were puzzled. They were 
not cowards, but they were greatly disturbed by the 
strange behavior of the enemy. Presently a messenger 
came in from the picket line on the north side and re- 
ported that the enemy had made an attack there, but 
had retreated at the first fire, and was retiring north- 
ward. This was a very strange thing for an enemy to 
be doing. But Lee held his men in line of battle all 
night, ready to repel any attack that might come. 

When daylight came they looked for the British, but 
not a redcoat could be seen anywhere. If they had 
been there during the night they were gone now. There 


was no sign of them anywhere. It was a great mystery. 
After a whilethey found the tracks of many wolves all 
going in the same direction toward the north. Then 
the mystery was understood. Not far off was an old 
building where meats and other supplies for the sol- 
diers had been placed. The wolves had found this out 
and had gone there in a large pack. 

Having satisfied their appetites, the wolves were re- 
turning when they ran into the pickets of Lee's men on 
the south. Fired upon by these they turned to the right 
and ran through the woods. Trying to get back to the 
road, they ran into the pickets again and were fired 
upon. Scampering off again they continued their flight 
and were fired upon the third time on the north side. 

When the truth became known a broad smile was 
seen on the faces of the soldiers, and for a long time it 
was a joke upon the pickets that they could not tell a 
pack of wolves from the British army. 



When Cornwallis left Wilmington in April, 1781, he 
went straight to Virginia, after stopping at Halifax for 
a few days to give his men rest. While there his famous 
cavalry leader, Colonel Tarleton, received a worse de- 
feat than the one he got at the Cowpens. 

Cornwallis was hurrying to Virginia to keep Wash- 
ington from capturing New York. There was no Ameri- 
can army to oppose him. General Lillington, a North 
Carolina patriot, had a small army, but he could not 
stand against the British. So he followed along be- 
hind, and sometimes he would attack the rear line with 
a great deal of vigor. In that way he kept the British 
worried. He sometimes took a few prisoners and de- 
stroyed some of the enemy's wagons. 

About the first of May the British came to Halifax. 
There was only a small North Carolina force under 
Governor Nash to guard the town. These did not wait 
to welcome Cornwallis, but got out of the way as best 
they could. The British went in and took possession of 
the place. 

Some of the British officers put on many airs, and 
walked the streets with high heads as if they owned the 


town. They made fun of the people, and spoke with 
contempt of the American army and of General Wash- 
ington and the other officers. The people took all these 
ugly words without saying much, because they knew 
that it would do no good to get angry. There were so 
many British that it would be foolish to provoke them. 

There were in Halifax, however, two ladies who were 
not afraid to express their opinions. These were Mrs. 
Wiley Jones and her sister, Mrs. Ashe. These ladies 
lived in an elegant mansion near town. They were as 
patriotic as their husbands and friends who were then 
in the American army fighting for liberty. One day 
General Leslie, Colonel Tarleton and some other British 
officers went to Mrs. Jones's house to call upon the 
ladies. Mrs. Jones did not want to see them at all, but 
she thought it would be rude to refuse to receive them. 
So she and Mrs. Ashe went down to the parlor and there 
found the officers, who were very polite and bowed low 
and spoke kindly. Very soon the talk drifted to the 
war, and a British officer made a slighting remark 
about the American army and the officers. 

"The American generals know nothing about war," 
said he. "None of them ever had any military training." 

"They have at least learned some things on the battle- 
field," said Mrs. Jones. "They are very good matches 


for the trained soldiers in the British army. For my 
part I think you might learn some things from them." 

"They are indeed good soldiers," said General Leslie, 
"and if they had had the training that our people have 
had the war would soon end in their favor." 

"Mrs. Jones," said Colonel Tarleton, "are you ac- 
quainted with Colonel William Washington? I have 
heard him spoken of so often that I should be glad to 
see him." 

"You should have looked behind you at the battle of 
the Cowpens," said Mrs. Ashe, "and you would have 
had that pleasure. Colonel Washington does not hide 
himself, nor does he run away from an enemy." 

This reply made Tarleton very angry, for he remem- 
bered well that a handsome young American had 
wounded him in the hand in that battle and made him 
run. But he did not know that it was William Wash- 

"I did not come here to be insulted," said he. "I did 
not run because I was afraid, but to save my troops. 
He is no soldier. I am told that he is an ignorant boor 
and cannot write his name." 

"At any rate, Colonel Tarleton, he knows how to 
make his mark," said Mrs. Jones, "for the signs are still 


plain." She said thi while looking at his wounded 

Tarleton became furious, and swore that he would 
kill Washington if he had to spend the remainder of his 
days in hunting him down. 

"He shall not escape me, the impudent cur, to lie 
upon me that way. I'll have his blood or die in the at- 
tempt. These despised Americans shall learn not to 
speak disrespectfully of their betters." 

Thus the fierce Briton went on in his rage, saying all 
sorts of ugly things, until General Leslie ordered him 
to stop. Soon they went away, and the two ladies were 
glad of it. The fair patriots had met the enemv and 
had defeated them in a war of words. 

Not long after that Cornwallis left Halifax and went 
on to Virginia.' Tarleton was still sore over his defeat. 
He never saw Colonel Washington to carry out his 
threat, for shortly after reaching Virginia Cornwallis 
had to surrender at Yorktown with his whole army. 
Tarleton went back to England, and never returned to 



There was a man living in North Carolina during the 
Revolution named David Fanning. He was a very cruel 
man, and took delight in bringing troubles on his neigh 
bors. He joined the British against his country, and 
did all he could to destroy the American army. Corn- 
wallis appointed him as a leader of the Tories in North 
Carolina. This was in the spring of 1781. Soon he had 
four or five hundred men who went about with him, 
killing people and robbing their neighbors of horses 
and money. He was quite a daring fellow. Sometimes 
he did some very remarkable things. 

At one time court was in session at Chatham court- 
house. The lawyers were talking law to the jury, and 
the judge was sitting on the bench. Suddenly David 
Fanning, at the head of forty Tories, rushed into the 
courthouse and made the whole court prisoners. He 
hurried them off to Wilmington,which was in the hands 
of the British. Then he and his men went off to find 
other things to do. He was never idle, and he hardly 
allowed his men to sleep. Everybody was afraid that 
Fanning would come upon them unawares; and no one 
ever knew when to expect him. 


There was one man in Chatham county that Fanning 
hated. This was Colonel Philip Alston. Once Fanning 
had been out upon one of his exploits and had met with 
Colonel Alston and a company of patriots. Fanning 
was beaten, and had to run as fast as he could to get 
out of the way of Colonel Alston. This wounded Fan- 
ning's pride, and he made up his mind that he would 
get even with Alston. 

About the first of August, 1781, Fanning heard that 
Colonel Alston was at home with a small company of 
soldiers. He thought it would be a good time to cap- 
ture him. He took twenty-four men and set out for 
Colonel Alston's house. It was Sunday morning when 
they reached there. Alston had placed sentinels around 
the house. These had been on the watch for a long 
time, and had gotten somewhat careless. Suddenly 
Fanning rode up and captured some of the sentinels 
before they could get into the house. The others es- 
caped. Then Colonel Alston saw that his house was 
surrounded by the soldiers of his enemy. 

There was much excitement in the house. Mrs. 
Alston put the children up the brick chimneys to pro- 
tect them from the shots; then she got into the bed and 
covered up, head and ears. Colonel Alston and his men 
shot from the windows and doors. Fanning and his 



men got behind fences and trees and shot at the house 
as best they could. The fight was kept up for some time. 
After a while Fanning told Lieutenant McKay, one of 
his officers, to run to the house with some men and 
burst open the doors. McKay jumped over the fence to 
do so, but was shot dead. The other men dodged be- 
hind the fence. They could not stand the hot fire. Then 
a negro ran up on the other side of the house to set it 
on fire, but he was shot down also. 

Late in the day Colonel Fanning thought of a sharp 
trick. There was an ox cart standing out in the lot. He 
filled this with hay as a protection against bullets. His 
men were to push this cart ahead of them to Colonel 
Alston's house and burst down the door, or set the 
hay on fire, which would burn the house down. 

Colonel Alston saw what they were doing and knew 
that he could not defend the house much longer. He 
told Mrs. Alston that the fight was about over, and that 
they would have to surrender. Mrs. Alston jumped out 
of bed, unbarred the door and held out a white flag. 
Fanning stopped firing and called out to her to meet 
him half way. She went out into the yard and Fanning 
came out from behind the hay. 

"We will surrender, sir," said she. "if you will grant 
us favorable terms." 


"What terms do you want, madam?" said Fanning. 

"That none of us shall be injured or sent out of the 
country," was the reply. 

"And what if I do not give those terms?" 

"Then we continue the fight," answered the brave 
woman. "There are but a few of us, but each man will 
bring down a Tory before the end is reached." 

Colonel Fanning was struck with this brave answer, 
and immediately granted the terms asked for. He had 
Colonel Alston in his power, but he was bound by his 
promise to Mrs. Alston that none of them should be 
harmed. So he paroled all the prisoners and allowed 
them to go home in safety. 

Shortly after this event Fanning, at the head of his 
Tories, marched into Hillsboro and captured Governor 
Burke and all the State officers. These were sent to 
Wilmington and kept in prison for a long time. 

Fanning continued to be a terror to the people of 
North Carolina until after the close of the war. He was 
hated by all the patriots. He murdered many men and 
women, and finally, after the war, fled to Canada, wb-ere 
he passed the remainder of his life, an exile and an 



Colonel William Hunter was one of the patriots who 
kept David Fanning busy in the summer and fall of 
1781. His home was near Sandy Creek Church, in Ran- 
dolph county. He was a strong patriot, and did all he 
could to gain the independence of his country. 

Before the Revolution he was a regulator, and was 
in the battle of Alamance. When the war began he 
joined General Washington's army and served under 
him during the first years of the war. When the fight- 
ing was over in the north he came back to North Caro- 
lina to help his people against their enemies. He found 
the State overrun by the British and Tories. Cornwallis 
had marched through the State three times. Fanning 
and his Tories were laying waste the country and mur- 
dering the people. 

Colonel Hunter went about the country raising a 
force of men to put a check on the Tories. He soon had 
a small body of men to follow him. Fanning was doing 
some ugly things in Chatham county, so Hunter went 
in search of the famous Tory. Fanning had over a hun- 
dred men with him. Hunter had less than twenty. He 
did not know that Fanning had so many; but Hunter 


was just as brave with twenty as he would have been 
with a thousand. He had no thought of running away 
from the Tory. When Fanning attacked, Hunter held 
his ground and fought bravely. Four of his men were 
killed and several wounded. Many of Fanning's men 
were killed also. "After holding his ground for some 
time, Hunter saw that his men were surrounded and 
could not escape. So he surrendered on condition that 
their lives should be spared. Fanning was glad enough 
to agree to this, for his men were falling every time 
Colonel Hunter's men fired their guns. 

Fanning then set out for Hillsboro with his prisoners. 
While on the way Colonel Hunter saw a good chance 
to escape, and made use of it. Quick as a flash he made 
a dash for the woods and hid under a rock, while the 
Tories were searching for him in the forest. He lay 
quite still until dark. Then he crept out and made his 
way to a farmer's house. The farmer promised to help 
him get away from the Tories, for they were still look- 
ing for him. Hunter knew that if he could get to Chat- 
ham courthouse he would be safe; for he had friends 
there. The important thing was to pass the Tories who 
were guarding the roads. He asked the farmer to take 
him in his wagon as a bag of grain. The farmer put him 
in the wagon, piled bags of grain around him, and set 


out for the mill. But he had not gone far before he 
was stopped by Fanning and his men. 

"Where is the rebel, my friend?" asked Fanning. "He 
went to your house last night, I have been told." 

"I do not try to keep up with the rebels," answered 
the farmer. "I am on my way to mill, and I shall be 
obliged if you will let me pass." 

"Not so fast," was the answer. "We need some corn 
for our horses, and shall have to ask you to divide with 

Colonel Hunter heard what was said, and knew that 
he was caught. But he lay quite still until one of Fan- 
ning's men came to lift out the bags. When he got 
hold of the bag that Hunter was in he knew that it was 
not corn. So he called for help and soon rolled Colonel 
Hunter out of the wagon. Colonel Fanning was over- 
joyed to see his enemy in his hands again. 

"I am very glad to see you, Colonel Hunter," he said. 
"How did you pass the night? You look tired. You 
shall be hanged at once." 

He gave the order for Hunter to be hanged to the 
nearest tree. His men were getting ready to put the 
rope around the prisoner's neck, when Hunter, with 
the activity of a cat, leaped upon Colonel Fanning's 
horse, that was standing near, and sped away like the 


wind. Fanning fired several shots at the horse and 
rider as they dashed up the road. 

Fanning leaped upon another horse and went in hot 
pursuit, followed by his dragoons. It was then a race 
to Deep river. Hunter had the start, and was mounted 
on Fanning's favorite horse. He reached the river some 
distance ahead of his pursuers, but there was no ford 
near. Just before him was a large slanting rock rising 
out of the water. This was too steep even for a man to 
run down. But Hunter dug his heels into the flanks 
of Fanning's horse and dashed down the rock at light- 
ning speed into tne river. The horse swam the river, 
reaching the other side just as Fanning and his men 
came up to the banks. They dared not follow him. 

Colonel Hunter stopped a moment on the shore, 
shook his fist at Fanning and rode away. He kept the 
horse as a trophy of his exploit. Hunter's escape was 
always a sore subject with Fanning. He became angry 
whenever anyone referred to how he lost his favorite 



Soon after the Revolution some of the people in the 
mountains became dissatisfied with the North Carolina 
government, and tried to form a State government of 
their own. Tennessee was then a part of North Caro- 

These people became angry because the State legis- 
lature gave all the country west of the Great Smoky 
mountains to the United States government. They 
said the State had no right to take such action. So they 
declared themselves free, and called a convention to 
meet at Jonesboro to write a constitution. 

All that country had been settled by hunters and 
trappers, who, like Daniel Boone, wanted "elbow 
room." They had come from eastern and central North 
Carolina, and were looking for better hunting grounds. 
Colonel John Sevier, one of the rough riders who had 
whipped the British at King's Mountain, was the best 
known man among them. 

"What right," said he, "has the legislature to trade 
us off? We are not cattle. We are free men and helped 
to drive the British from this land. We have a right to 



say how we shall be governed. I say we should be a 
State to ourselves." 

Most of the people agreed with him. They met in 
Jonesboro to begin a new State. But the delegates 
were all bear hunters and Indian fighters, and they 
knew more about hunting than they did about law- 
making. -They could not agree on anything. Every 
man had his opinion, and had little respect for the opin- 
ion of any other. So they talked and disagreed with 
each other, and made no constitution. Finally they 
adjourned without accomplishing anything. 

Next year they met again. This time they were not 
so noisy. They knew better what to do. Soon they had 
the constitution written, and went home. Colonel 
Sevier was elected governor. 

As there were no gold or silver coins in the State, one 
of the things the legislature had to do was to make 
some money to carry on trade. It was agreed that the 
skins of animals should pass as money. One raccoon 
skin passed for one shilling and three pence, one beaver 
skin for six shillings, and one deer or otter skin for six 
shillings. That kind of money was very convenient for 
the hunters and trappers of the new State. Anyone 
could get it, as game was plentiful. Whenever a man 
needed money all he had to do was to take his gun and 


dogs, go to the woods and shoot it from the trees or 
capture it in the chase. So it happened that there was 
always plenty of money in the land. 

When Governor Caswell, of North Carolina, learned 
what Colonel Sevier and his people had done, he sent a 
message to Sevier that he had better stop trying to be 
governor. Sevier would not agree to this, as he thought 
himself to be as much a governor as Caswell was. Then 
Governor Caswell sent a detachment of soldiers under 
Colonel Tipton to settle the matter. Sevier was so in- 
dependent that Colonel Tipton declared that he would 
break up Colonel Sevier's government. He heard one 
day that court was being held at Jonesboro. He and 
his soldiers went there and marched into the court- 
house. They upset the tables and the chairs, seized the 
court records and turned the judge and jury into the 
street. When Governor Sevier heard of it he collected 
his soldiers and went hunting for Colonel Tipton. He 
attacked Colonel Tipton's house and burst open the 
doors. Tipton was away. Sevier took the court records 
and carried them off in triumph. No blood was shed. 

Soon afterward Colonel Tipton made an attack upon 
Governor Sevier's house and found him absent. He 
went in and found the records which had been taken 
from him, and carried them away with him. Again 


Sevier led forth his soldiers to battle. They went 'to 
Colonel Tipton's house, but found that he was gone. 
The court records were again taken, and were hidden 
in a cave. And so the fight raged. It was a war in 
which one side always attacked the other in its absence 
and no one was hurt. Colonel Tipton and Governor 
Sevier were both brave men, but they did not happen 
to meet. 

Finally, in 1788, Governor Sevier was at home one 
day when Colonel Tipton called. Sevier was captured 
and carried to Morganton. There he was put in prison 
and kept for some time. After a while he was turned 
loose because he had been such a brave patriot in the 

With Sevier's capture the State of Franklin fell, for 
he was the leader of the movement. In a few years all 
that part of the country was organized as the State of 
Tennessee, and the people elected him as the first gover- 
nor. After his term as governor was out, he was elected 
to the United States Senate, and served his State well. 
He was a brave man, and did much for his country and 
for the State of Tennessee. 




Near the mouth of the Pamlico river in Beaufort 
county is a little town called Bath. It was settled in 
1705, and is the oldest town in North Carolina. About 
four hundred people live there now, but many years ago 
it was much larger. 

In colonial times it was a place of much importance. 
Some of the leading men of the colony lived there, and 
many interesting things happened in or near it. The 
famous Blackbeard had his home near Bath for some 
years before he began his piracy on the Atlantic coast. 
He had many hiding places in the neighborhood, and, 
it is said, concealed much of his stolen treasure there. 

One day, in 1718, the people of the town were very 
much excited over a piece of news that had just been 
received. A man had come from Jamestown, Virginia, 
and had brought the tidings that a war vessel had been 
sent from the Chesapeake Bay to capture Blackbeard. 
Lieutenant Maynard was in command of the vessel. It 
was expected to reach Pamlico sound that very day, 
and every one was expecting to hear the roar of battle. 
People were walking about the streets and talking in 
an excited manner. "Will Maynard be strong enough 


to capture the pirate?" was the question aske.d. No one 
could answer, but many were fearful that the fight 
would be won by Blackbeard. 

"If the pirate beats in this battle," said a citizen, 
"then the trade of Bath is ruined. We will be in his 
hands for all time. He has already cut us almost en- 
tirely off from the world." 

"That is so," said another. "If Maynard fails, then 
we might as well move away from this place and begin 
somewhere else." 

"Blackbeard is a terrible enemy," added another, 
"and dreadful will be the fate of Maynard if he falls 
into the hands of the pirates." 

Just then the boom of a cannon was heard far down 
the river. Then another and another followed. People 
became wild with excitement. They were oing hither 
and thither. 

"That's the beginning of the battle," was heard on all 
sides. "Pray God that the right may win!" 

For some time the roar of the cannon was kept up. 
Then the booming was less frequent, and finally ceased 
altogether. All felt that the battle was being fought 
out on the deck of one of the vessels, and there was 
greater anxiety than before. All were anxious to know 
the result of the fight. Hour after hour passed and no 



tidings came. Men began to feel sure that Maynard 
had been beaten and his vessel destroyed. 

"Surely Maynard will come here if he has been suc- 
cessful," all said. But the day was growing old and he 
had not come. Men and boys, in their anxiety, had 
gone far down the river to catch'the first glimpse of a 
coming vessel. But time passed and no boat came. 

Suddenly a vessel was seen coming up the river with 
all sails set. When it came near enough to be seen 
plainly, it was found to be a war vessel, and it was not 
Blackbeard's. It came up and anchored in the harbor. 
A great cheer went up from the people who had gath- 
ered on the shore. It was Maynard's vessel, and had 
Blackbeard's bloody head on the bow and thirteen 
pirates as prisoners in the hold. 

The people were glad to see that the dreaded pirate 
had been slain and his band broken up. Lieutenant 
Maynard was received with every mark of favor. After 
staying there for a day or two, he sailed away to Vir- 
ginia to carry the news of his success. 

For many years after the death of Blackbeard the 
town had nothing to hinder its growth. People from 
all over the colony came there to live, and it soon be- 
came the leading town of the colony and a center of 
trade and commerce. 


One day, while Bath was at its greatest prosperity, a 
noted preacher came there. This was the Rev. George 
Whitefield, who had preached to large crowds in Eng- 
land and the colonies. Wherever he went people flocked 
to hear him. His preaching was a subject of conversa- 
tion everywhere. At Bath it was quite different. No- 
body seemed anxious to hear his sermons. It is even 
said that people mocked and made fun of him. No 
doubt this good man thought the people were very 
great sinners, and doubtless they were. 

It is said that, after he had been mistreated by the 
people, he went out into the street, shook the dust from 
his feet, pronounced a curse upon the town, and left. 
It is not positively known that he did this, but people 
living to-day in that part of the country tell it as the 

There are several interesting objects in Bath. Among 
them is the old brick church that was built in colonial 
times. The bricks used in building it were brought 
from England. It is an object of much interest to those 
who visit the old town. 




There is a neighborhood in Halifax county called 
Dumpling Town. No one has ever been able to tell why 
it is called by that name. It may be because the people 
living there were very fond of apple dumplings. There 
is an old legend which says that the housekeepers of 
that part of the county, a long time ago, had a contest 
to decide who could cook the largest dumpling. People 
from far and near came to see the dumplings, which 
were of all sizes, from the tiniest apple to the largest 
cooking pot. There were dumplings round and dump- 
lings long, dumplings small and dumplings large. It 
was a great day for dumplings. If this story is true, 
then the place has a good right to its name. But no one 
knows whether it is true or not. 

About a hundred years ago there lived in that neigh- 
borhood a teacher whose name was Thomas Peterson. 
The boys called him "Old Peters." He was a very 
learned man, and knew a great deal of Latin and Greek. 
He taught for six months in the year and hunted and 
fished the other six. As a consequence he was just as 
good a hunter as he was a teacher. 

In those days there were no fine schoolhouses as 


there are now. In many neighborhoods there were no 
schoolhouses at all. The house in which "Old Peters" 
taught was built of logs and had one room, one door and 
two windows. The floor was laid with slabs, split from 
pine trees, and had large cracks in it. The windows 
were made by sawing through a log on each side of the 
room. These windows let in some light, but they also 
let in more cold. Between the logs earth and sticks had 
been placed to keep out the cold winds, but on warm 
days the boys would punch the earth out to get fresh 
air. So there was not much left to protect the children 
from the winter winds except a great roaring fire in 
the fireplace. 

The fireplace took up nearly the whole of one end of 
the room. In cold weather large logs were piled upon 
the fire until the flames leaped up the chimney and the 
heat went into all parts of the room. At such times 
no one could sit in the chimney corner, for it was as 
hot as a furnace. But when the fire was not so large 
half a dozen children could sit in the corner at the same 

Very little furniture was in the room. The teacher's 
table and stool were in one corner. Benches without 
backs were placed here and there for the pupils to sit 
on. There was a long desk built along the wall, which 


was used as a writing desk for children who had ad- 
vanced that far in learning. Those in the lower grades 
had to sit on the benches without desks and study their 
books. They often spent a good deal of the time in 
drawing pictures on their slates. 

Usually things went well in this school, for the pupils 
all feared "Old Peters" and learned their lessons well. 
But sometimes when Mr. Peterson had the dyspepsia 
everything seemed to go wrong. The boys did not know 
their lessons and the girls whispered too much. 

One day "Old Peters" came into the schoolroom with 
a frown on his face. The boys and girls began to feel 
uneasy, and kept watching the large bundle of switches 
that he had near his desk. It was plain that he was in 
a bad humor, and that trouble was ahead. 

"Get your spelling lesson!" said the master, and 
every pupil began to study the lesson aloud and sway 
back and forth in his seat to keep time with the sylla- 
bles. That was the style in those days. One boy knew 
his lesson already. He moved back and forth with the 
others, but while they were studying their lessons he 
was saying, "Old Peters, Old Pete, Old Peters." But 
alas! just as he was saying the last name, all the others 
ceased to speak and his words sounded out loud and 


All the children laughed out. "Old Peters" saw the 
little rascal and called him up to the desk. He came 
trembling. The master reached for his switch and gave 
him seieral severe blows. Then he made the boy stand 
up in the corner on one foot. 

When the class came up to recite, the boy who had 
been punished could not spell the words, because he 
was scared. He had lost all his knowledge. "Old 
Peters" was angry, and put the dunce cap on the boy's 
head. He then had to stand on the dunce stool for the 
other children to laugh at. The poor boy sobbed and 
groaned for a long time, but this did not soften the 
master's heart. He made one of the others hold his 
book -bag under the boy's face to catch his tears. This 
was worse than the other punishment, and the boy al- 
most died with shame. 

This was the way he punished for misbehavior, or for 
not knowing a lesson. If two boys got into a quarrel 
with each other, he would have them settle their diffi- 
culty at recess, and he did it in this way : Each boy was 
given a stout hickory switch, and they had to play 
"wrap jacket" until one had enough. Sometimes the 
fight would be kept up until the switches were worn 
out. Then others would be gotten and the battle con- 


tinned until one of the boys cried "enough." Then the 
master declared the fight ended and named the winner. 

At Christmas time it was the custom for the boys to 
shut the teacher out, and in that way get a holiday. 
One morning, about a week before Christmas, all the 
boys reached the schoolhouse before the master and 
locked the door. Then they waited for "Old Peters." 
When he came he found the door and windows fastened. 
He knew what was up, and joined in the fun. 

Presently a boy on the inside said : "We must have a 
holiday for ten days. Will you give it to us?" 

"No," said the master. 

"Then we will duck you," said all the boys; and the 
door was opened and the boys ran out. "Old Peters" 
ran down the road with the crowd at his heels. Soon 
they caught him and started for the creek near by; but 
before they got to the water he gave in and promised a 
holiday. Then all went back to the house, and the mas- 
ter dismissed school until after the Christmas holidays. 

This was one of the old schools of the long ago. There 
were many others in North Carolina like it. They were 
small and unfurnished, but they did much good in train- 
ing our forefathers to become useful citizens. 


Los Angeles 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 


Form L9 15m-10, '48(31039)444 




F255 Allen - 
A43n ITorth Carolina 
History seriesT 

MAR 2 8 1960 


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